SAM II Exam II Material - Urology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in SAM II Exam II Material - Urology Deck (133)
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1

Which is the least helpful indirect measure of GFR?

  • Creatinine
  • Cystatin C
  • Urea
  • Urine output

Urea

2

A dog with proteinuria due to glomerular disease is considered to have which one of the following problems?

  • Renal failure
  • Renal disease
  • Azotemia
  • Uremia

Renal disease​

3

T/F: When proteinuria is demonstrated by a urine protein:creatinine ratio (UPCR), the etiology can be assumed to be glomerular in origin

False

4

A dog has isosthenuric urine (USG 1.008‐1.012) without azotemia. What percentage of the kidney is damaged?

  • 35%
  • 50%
  • 66%
  • 75%

66%​

5

A dog has azotemia and inadequately concentrated urine (USG < 1.022) with dehydration. Select the potential differential diagnoses.

  • Renal failure
  • Hyperadrenocorticism
  • Furosemide treatment
  • Phenobarbitone

  • Renal failure
  • Hyperadrenocorticism
  • Furosemide treatment
  • Phenobarbitone

6

Which statement is incorrect?

  • Normal water intake is 60‐80 ml/kg/d
  • Normal urine production is 1‐2 ml/kg/hr
  • Oliguria is urine production < 0.5 ml/kg/hr
  • Normal USG is 1.007‐1.015

Normal USG is 1.007‐1.015​

7

In cardiac disease we employ angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi). What effect will this have on the kidney?

  • Efferent vasodilator
  • Afferent vasodilator
  • Increase ultrafiltrate volume
  • Stimulate aldosterone and cause hypertension

Efferent vasodilator​

8

When ACEi Rx is started we repeat blood tests 3 days later to monitor for which laboratory change?

  • Rise in sodium concentration
  • Rise in packed cell volume
  • Rise in creatinine
  • Rise in calcium

Rise in creatinine​

9

A 6 year old Persian, FeLV positive, presents with PU/PD, bilateral renomegaly, irregular, painful kidneys on palpation. What is the most likely diagnosis?

  • Renal carcinoma
  • Lymphoma
  • PKD
  • Amyloidosis

PKD​

10

A 4 year old Corgi presents with pigmenturia, that occurs at the end of urination. Urinalysis confirms both Hguria and ghost RBC. The dog is proteinuric and azotemic. What is the most likely diagnosis

  • Renal
  • Bladder
  • Lower urinary
  • Coagulopathy

Renal

11

Potential causes of hospital acquired AKI include all of the following except:

  • Radiocontrast agent
  • NSAID
  • Gentamycin
  • Leptospirosis
  • Septic shock

Leptospirosis

12

A 4 year old Beagle presents to your clinic with anorexia. Biochemistry detects mild azotemia and a BG of 7.5 mmol/l (RI 3.3 – 5.5 mmol/l) and blood gas detected a metabolic acidosis. Urinalysis has the following abnormalities:, USG: 1.022, glucose 1+, protein 1+, sediment: RTE cells.
What is the most likely problem?

  • Diabetic ketoacidosis
  • Renal tubular acidosis
  • Cushing’s syndrome with garbage disease
  • Acute on chronic kidney disease

Renal tubular acidosis​

13

Humpty, a Tonkinese, 2 year old, M(N) cat, visits your clinic as the owner has read on the internet that Tiger lilies are toxic and she saw Humpty chewing some leaves that morning. You run some biochemistry and UA screening tests but all the results are WNL. Which statement is correct?

  • He is in the initiation phase of AKD
  • He is in the extension phase of AKD
  • He is in the progression phase of AKD
  • It is unlikely that Humpty ingested the leave and there is no reason to worry

He is in the initiation phase of AKD​

14

What is not a feature of acute renal tubular injury?

  • Renal tubular epithelial cells on sediment
  • Glucosuria
  • Proteinuria
  • High fractional excretion of sodium
  • Alkalosis

Alkalosis​

15

A dog with an USG of 1.018 but no azotemia can be classified as having?

  • Renal failure
  • Renal insufficiency
  • Renal disease
  • Uremia

Renal insufficiency​

16

A dog with CKD, IRIS stage III and UPCR of 0.4, did not have blood pressure measured. Which is the correct classification?

  • IRIS III, NP, RND
  • IRIS III, BP, RND
  • IRIS III, BP, AP0
  • IRIS III, P, AP0

IRIS III, BP, RND

17

Renal diets have strong evidence to support their use due to the benefits of prolonged survival. When should you recommend starting a renal diet in a cat with CKD?

  • In hospital
  • Stage I
  • Stage II
  • Stage III
  • Stage IV

Stage II​

18

You diagnose hypertension in a dog with TOD from CKD (IRIS stage III, BP, AP3(C)). What therapy do you recommend at this stage?

  • Nothing yet, it must be repeatable
  • Benazepril (ACEi)
  • Telmisartan (ARI)
  • Amlodapine (Ca channel blocker)

Benazepril (ACEi)​

19

A dog with an USG of 1.018 but no azotemia can be classified as having?

  • Renal failure
  • Renal insufficiency
  • Renal disease
  • Uremia

Renal insufficiency

20

Which biochemical abnormality is not associated with CKD?

  • High total Ca
  • Low ionized Ca
  • High K+
  • Low K+
  • High PO4
  • High H+

High K+​

21

A dog with CKD, IRIS stage III and UPCR of 0.4, did not have blood pressure measured. Which is the correct classification?

  • IRIS III, NP, RND
  • IRIS III, BP, RND
  • IRIS III, BP, AP0
  • IRIS III, P, AP0

IRIS III, BP, RND

22

A 5 year old male neutered Scottish terrier with IRIS III, BP, AP3 has persistent severe hypertension (190 mmHg) for 2 weeks with no TOD. What is your first choice of antihypertensive agent?

  • Amlodipine
  • Benazepril
  • Propanolol
  • Hydralazine

Benazepril​

23

A 11 year old female Abyssinian with IRIS stage II, NP, AP3 (persistent severe hypertension for 2 weeks). What is your first choice of treatment?

  • Amlodipine
  • Benazepril
  • Propanolol
  • Furosemide

Amlodipine

24

Which is not a strategy for managing proteinuria?

  • Low protein diet
  • Telmesartan
  • Benazepril
  • Hydralazine

Hydralazine

25

Multiple myeloma and Bence‐Jones proteinuria is an example of which category of proteinuria?

  • Pre‐renal
  • Renal
  • Post‐renal
  • Physiologic

Pre‐renal​

26

What would be a contraindication for renal biopsy in the investigation of renal proteinuria?

  • Hypoalbuminemia
  • A breed with familial history
  • IRIS stage IV azotemia
  • Hypertension

IRIS stage IV azotemia​

27

What is an example of immune‐complex glomerulonephritis?

  • Shar pei amyloidosis
  • X linked hereditary proteinuria in Samoyed
  • Ehrlichiosis
  • Alport syndrome in Cocker spaniels

Ehrlichiosis​

28

The complications of a glomerulonephritis syndrome include all of the following except?

  • Hypertension
  • Azotemia
  • Hypoalbuminemia
  • Hypocoagulable state

Hypocoagulable state​

29

Which is the most appropriate fluid to administer in a dog with PLN that is euvolemic?

  • Hypertonic saline
  • 0.9% saline
  • Ringer lactate
  • Hetastarch

Hetastarch​

30

You have diagnosed ICGN in a 5 year old dog with diabetes. What is the most appropriate therapy?

  • Prednisolone
  • Mycophenolate mofetil
  • Azathioprine
  • Cyclosporin

Mycophenolate mofetil​