This is a specific antidote used in Tylenol toxicity
N-acetyl cysteine treats acetaminophen (Tylenol) poisoning by binding the poisonous forms of acetaminophen that are formed in the liver
Considering the risks and diagnostic value of each biopsy technique, which biopsy method is the best option for dogs with non-infiltrative/neoplastic liver disease?
- Menghini tru-cut
T/F: If you note microcytic, hypochromic anemia in a yorkshire terrier, this can be an indicator of poor iron metabolism associated with portosystemic shunts
What is the drug of choice for treatment of histiocytic ulcerative colitis?
Since histiocytic ulcerative colitis is a bacterial infection, it is antibiotic responsive. Enrofloxacin is typically effective. It is critical to treat for at least 8 weeks (even if the patient feels normal by week 2). Stopping antibiotics before 8 weeks has been associated with recurrence of infection and resistance to enrofloxacin.
Lady, a 6-year-old Labrador has been under your care for CH for 2 months. Today she presents like this. What do you recommend as the first line of treatment?
- Drain all the fluid by abdominocentesis
- Spironolactone at 2 mg/kg/day
- Furosemide at 2 mg/kg/day
- Colloid like hetastarch
Spironolactone at 2 mg/kg/day
T/F: ALT and AST are very liver-specific
ALT is very liver specific
AST is also from skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle
T/F: Both cats and dogs with acute pancreatitis will regularly demonstrate abdominal pain
T/F: The current combination of tests with the best test accuracy for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is cPL and abdominal ultrasound
What is the specific treatment for aflatoxicosis?
Plasma & Vitamin K
T/F: Xylitol toxicosis is associated with hyperglycemia
Xylitol stimulates insulin release and results in hypoglycemia
What is the role of H2 blockers and proton pump inhibitors in the medical treatment of esophagitis?
neutralize acid secretion
T/F: Concurrent IBD, cholangiohepatitis and pancreatitis are common in cats
These concurrent diseases are referred to collectively as triaditis
What liver disease is associated with the highest mortality rate in cats?
Lipid accumulation in hepatocytes eventually results in loss of hepatic function.
- Increased triglyceride deposition associated with starvation due to mobilization of fatty acids from lipid stores
- Insufficient insulin – fat stores used for energy
Is the following clinical sign more associated with small bowel diarrhea or large bowel diarrhea:
weight loss and protein loss
small bowel (often in chronic)
What is the mechanism of action of lactulose in resolving hepatic encephalopathy?
- Resolves dysbiosis
- Ion trapping
- Resolves alkalosis
lactulose acidifies the GIT and traps ammonia; decreases absorption of harmful substances by increasing GIT transit
Current evidence based medicine supports the diagnosis of specific therapy for acute pancreatitis. Which therapy in dogs is not specifically indicated?
- Crystalloid resuscitation
- Fentanyl CRI
- Broad spectrum antibiotics
- Maropitant, NK1 receptor antagonist
Which of these is/are classic feature(s) of small bowel enteritis in contrast to large bowel enteritis?
- low volume
hypocobalaminemia is more characteristic for small intestinal enteritis
T/F: Both cats and dogs will have obvious ultrasonography changes in acute pancreatitis in >70% of cases
Cats are more prone to chronic pancreatitis than acute pancreatitis and it's difficult to diagnose chronic pancreatitis on ultrasound
T/F: Steroids are indicated for treatment of hepatic lipidosis in cats
T/F: Both cats and dogs will frequently have cholangitis and enteritis accompanying pancreatitis
T/F: When using maropitant as an anti-emetic in acute liver disease, it is standard to decrease the recommended dose by ~25%
Maropitant is metabolized in the liver, so we generally decrease the dose by ~25% in our acute liver disease patients
Which of these is not a good treatment for IBD in these cats?
The most common form of pancreatitis in cats is:
When submitting a liver biopsy, what special stain would you request if you want to confirm cirrhosis and fibrosis?
T/F: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) can occur in acute or chronic liver disease as well as portosystemic shunts
Corneal edema is a hallmark feature of:
infectious canine hepatitis
A Cairn Terrier is admitted to the ICU with acute abdomen. Blood glucose levels are normal. SNAPcPL is abnormal. Abdominal US shows multiple hypoechoic lesions with thickened capsule in the left pancreatic limb, measuring 2-4 cm diameter. The most likely diagnosis is:
- Pancreatic pseudocyst
- Pancreatic carcinoma
- Pancreatic Abscess
- Metastatic hemangiosarcoma
In confirming Helicobacter spp. infection of the stomach mucosa, which is the test with the best sensitivity and the quickest turn-around time?
- Endoscopic biopsy with histopathology
- Endoscopic biopsy and urease test
- Urea breath test
- Endoscopy with cytobrush for cytology
Endoscopy with cytobrush for cytology
What are two differentials for lymphocytic cholangitis in cats?
What is the most common cause of extrahepatic biliary obstruction in dogs?