SAM II Exam I Material - Gastrointestinal Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in SAM II Exam I Material - Gastrointestinal Deck (124)
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1

This is a specific antidote used in Tylenol toxicity

N-acetyl cysteine

N-acetyl cysteine treats acetaminophen (Tylenol) poisoning by binding the poisonous forms of acetaminophen that are formed in the liver

2

Considering the risks and diagnostic value of each biopsy technique, which biopsy method is the best option for dogs with non-infiltrative/neoplastic liver disease?

  • FNA
  • Menghini tru-cut
  • Laparotomy/laparoscopy

Laparotomy/laparoscopy​

3

T/F: If you note microcytic, hypochromic anemia in a yorkshire terrier, this can be an indicator of poor iron metabolism associated with portosystemic shunts

True

4

What is the drug of choice for treatment of histiocytic ulcerative colitis?

enrofloxacin

Since histiocytic ulcerative colitis is a bacterial infection, it is antibiotic responsive. Enrofloxacin is typically effective. It is critical to treat for at least 8 weeks (even if the patient feels normal by week 2). Stopping antibiotics before 8 weeks has been associated with recurrence of infection and resistance to enrofloxacin.

5

Lady, a 6-year-old Labrador has been under your care for CH for 2 months. Today she presents like this. What do you recommend as the first line of treatment?

  • Drain all the fluid by abdominocentesis
  • Spironolactone at 2 mg/kg/day
  • Furosemide at 2 mg/kg/day
  • Colloid like hetastarch

Spironolactone at 2 mg/kg/day

6

T/F: ALT and AST are very liver-specific

False

ALT is very liver specific

AST is also from skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle

7

T/F: Both cats and dogs with acute pancreatitis will regularly demonstrate abdominal pain

False

8

T/F: The current combination of tests with the best test accuracy for the diagnosis of acute pancreatitis is cPL and abdominal ultrasound

True

9

What is the specific treatment for aflatoxicosis?

Plasma & Vitamin K

10

T/F: Xylitol toxicosis is associated with hyperglycemia

False

Xylitol stimulates insulin release and results in hypoglycemia

11

What is the role of H2 blockers and proton pump inhibitors in the medical treatment of esophagitis?

neutralize acid secretion

12

T/F: Concurrent IBD, cholangiohepatitis and pancreatitis are common in cats

True

These concurrent diseases are referred to collectively as triaditis

13

What liver disease is associated with the highest mortality rate in cats?

hepatic lipidosis

Lipid accumulation in hepatocytes​ eventually results in loss of hepatic function. 

  • Increased triglyceride deposition associated with starvation due to mobilization of fatty acids from lipid stores
  • Insufficient insulin – fat stores used for energy

14

Is the following clinical sign more associated with small bowel diarrhea or large bowel diarrhea:

weight loss and protein loss

small bowel (often in chronic)

15

What is the mechanism of action of lactulose in resolving hepatic encephalopathy?

  • Laxative
  • Purgative
  • Resolves dysbiosis
  • Ion trapping
  • Resolves alkalosis

Ion trapping​

lactulose acidifies the GIT and traps ammonia; decreases absorption of harmful substances by increasing GIT transit​

16

Current evidence based medicine supports the diagnosis of specific therapy for acute pancreatitis. Which therapy in dogs is not specifically indicated?

  • Crystalloid resuscitation
  • Fentanyl CRI
  • Broad spectrum antibiotics
  • Maropitant, NK1 receptor antagonist

Broad-spectrum antibiotics

17

Which of these is/are classic feature(s) of small bowel enteritis in contrast to large bowel enteritis?

  • mucous
  • tenesmus
  • dyschezia
  • hematochezia
  • low volume
  • hypocobalaminemia

hypocobalaminemia

hypocobalaminemia is more characteristic for small intestinal enteritis

18

T/F: Both cats and dogs will have obvious ultrasonography changes in acute pancreatitis in >70% of cases

False

Cats are more prone to chronic pancreatitis than acute pancreatitis and it's difficult to diagnose chronic pancreatitis on ultrasound

19

T/F: Steroids are indicated for treatment of hepatic lipidosis in cats

False!

20

T/F: Both cats and dogs will frequently have cholangitis and enteritis accompanying pancreatitis

False

21

T/F: When using maropitant as an anti-emetic in acute liver disease, it is standard to decrease the recommended dose by ~25%

True

Maropitant is metabolized in the liver, so we generally decrease the dose by ~25% in our acute liver disease patients

22

Which of these is not a good treatment for IBD in these cats?

  • Budesonide
  • Prednisolone
  • Metronidazole
  • Chlorambucil
  • Azathioprine

Azathioprine​

23

The most common form of pancreatitis in cats is:

chronic pancreatitis

24

When submitting a liver biopsy, what special stain would you request if you want to confirm cirrhosis and fibrosis?

Masson's trichome

25

T/F: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) can occur in acute or chronic liver disease as well as portosystemic shunts

True

26

Corneal edema is a hallmark feature of:

infectious canine hepatitis

27

A Cairn Terrier is admitted to the ICU with acute abdomen. Blood glucose levels are normal. SNAPcPL is abnormal. Abdominal US shows multiple hypoechoic lesions with thickened capsule in the left pancreatic limb, measuring 2-4 cm diameter. The most likely diagnosis is:

  • Pancreatic pseudocyst
  • Insulinoma
  • Pancreatic carcinoma
  • Cysts
  • Pancreatic Abscess
  • Metastatic hemangiosarcoma

Pancreatic Abscess​

28

In confirming Helicobacter spp. infection of the stomach mucosa, which is the test with the best sensitivity and the quickest turn-around time?

  • Endoscopic biopsy with histopathology
  • Endoscopic biopsy and urease test
  • Urea breath test
  • Endoscopy with cytobrush for cytology

Endoscopy with cytobrush for cytology​

29

What are two differentials for lymphocytic cholangitis in cats?

FIP, lymphoma

30

What is the most common cause of extrahepatic biliary obstruction in dogs?

pancreatitis