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Flashcards in Psychological Assessment Deck (73)
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two characteristics of a test, test is said to be standardized when the apparatus, and the scoring have been fixed so the scores collected at different times and places are fully comparable. Any deviation from standardized administration and scoring may result in invalid conclusions,
A test is standardized when administered under standard conditions to a representative sample for the purpose of establishing norms


Norm Referenced

permit comparisons between an examinee's performance and the performance of individuals in a norm group, percentile ranks, and standard scores are examples


Criterion Referenced

domain referenced and permit interpreting an examinees performance in terms of what the examinee can do or knows with regard to a clearly defined content domain or in terms of performance or status on an external criterion , compared to a pre established cutoff


Self Referenced

ipsative scores which permit intraindividual comparsions, comparsions of an examinees score on one scale with his or her scale on other scores


Behavioral Assessment/Functional Behavioral Assessment

FBA- is a behavior assessment that entails determining the function or purpose of a behavior by identifying its antecedents and consequences. goal is to identify strategies for decreasing or eliminating a target behavior by eliminating the antecedents and consequences that are maintaining the behavior and providing antecedents and consequences that support an alternative behavior


Dynamic Assessment/Testing the Limits

interactive approach and deliberate deviation from standardized testing procedures to obtain additional information about the examinee and if they will benefit from additional assistance or instruction
Testing the limits- providing an examinee with additional cues, suggestions, feedback and is done after standardized administration of the test


Actuarial vs Clinical Prediction

Actuarial ( statical ) predictions are based on empirically validated relationships between test results and specific criteria and make use of multiple regression equation

Clinical Prediction- based on decision makers intuition, experience, and knowledge
*actuarial method is more accurate than clinical judgement alone


Catell's Fluid and Crystalized Intelligence

Crystalized Intelligence( Gc) refers to acquired knowledge and skill, affected by educational and cultural experiences and includes reading, and factual knowledge,
Fluid Intelligence (gf) does not depend on specific instruction, relatively culture free and enables an individual to solve novel problems and perceive relations and similarities


Guilfords Convergent and Divergent Thinking

Convergent thinking- relies on rational, logical reasoning, and involves the use of logical judgement and consideration of facts to derive correct solution to a problem
Divergent thinking- nonlogical processes and requires creativity and flexibility to derive multiple solutions


IQ concordance rates

greater the genetic similarity, the higher the correlation
Identical twins reared together- .85
Identical twins reared apart- .67
Fraternal Twins reared together- .58
Biological siblings reared together- .45
Biological siblings reared apart- .24
Biological sibling and parent togeher .39
Biological parent and child( apart_ .22
Adoptive parent and child .18


Flynn Effect

Research by Flynn 1987, 1998, found that IQ test scores increased over the previous 70 years in the United States and other industrialized countires. involves an increase in at least 3 IQ points per decade, due to increases in fluid intelligence, increased for individuals with IQS 70- 109 but reversed for individuals with IQS for 110 and above


Aging/Crystalized and Fluid Intelligence

crystalized intelligence increases until about age 60 but fluid intelligence peaks in late adolescense and declines,
Fluid intelligence and age related declines have been due to processing speed


Cross Sequential Design

- Seattle Longitundital study- combined cross sectional and longitudinal methologies, cross sectional design more likely to find early age related declines in IQ because it is more vulnerable to cohort, effects


Effects of Age on Six primary mental abilities- Seattle Study

inductive reasoning, spatial orientation, perceptual speed, numeric ability, vocabulary and verbal memory , most people only perceptual speed declined substantially prior to age 60.


Slope Bias

occurs when there is differential validity, validity coefficents for a predictor differ for different groups and, predictor is more accurate for one group than another
(slop bias because the regression lines for the groups have different slopes in the scatterplot depicting predictor and criterion scores


Intercept Bias

unfairness- occurs when the validity coefficents and critrerion performance for different groups are the same but their mean scores on the predictor differ , predictor consistently over or underpredicts performance on the criterion for measures of one of the groups


Stanford Binet Age Range

Stanford Binet Intelligence test - age range 2.0 to 85 +, designed as measured of cognitive ability but also to assist in psychoeducational evaluation, the diagnosis of developmental disabilities, forensic, career, neuropsychological and early childhood assessment


Stanford Binet- Five cognitive factors

Fluid Reasoning. Knowledge, Quanatiative reasoning, Visual Spatial Processing, Working Memory,


Stanford Binet Routing Subtests

- objects series/matrices ( nonverbal) and Vocabulary (verbal) starting point is based on the examinees age or estimate ability level


WAIS-IV Age Range:

Weschler Adult Intelligence Scale- 16- 90.11 years old- provides a full scale IQ


WAIS-IV four indexes

Working Memory Index, - digit span, arithemtic
Supplemental, letter number sequencing
*primary capactities- initial registration and mental manipulation of stimuli,
Secondary capacities- audtiory acuity, attention, mental processing speed, expressive language, math skills,

Verbal Comprehension- vocabulary, similarities, information, supplemental: comprehension
*primary capacities- retrieval of verbal information from long term memory, reasoning with verbal information

Processing speed index- symbol search, coding, supplemental: cancellation
Primary Capacties- verbal, motor, and visual processing speed
Secondary: visual attention, perception, organizational skills,

Perceptual Reasoning:: Block design, matrix reasoning, visual puzzles, supplemental: figure weights, picture completion
Primary Capacities: reasoning with nonverbal, visual stimuli


WAIS FSIQ and index scores for individuals with Alzheimers Disease

Full scale IQ- substest scorees are are combined for FSIQ, interpreted with caution when 1.5 standard deviation or more between two index scores, or any two subtsts.
FSIW for alzhiemers 81.2


WISC-V age range

Weschler Intelligence scale for children: appropriate from age 6.0 to 16.11- provides a FSIQ,


WISC -V Primary Indexes

Verbal Comprehension, Visual spatial, Fluid Reasoning, Working Memory and Processing speed


KABC- II Age range:

children 3.0 through 18.11


KABC-II purposes

measure of cognitive ability and culture fair test by minimizing verbal instructions and responses, five scales, simultaneous, sequential, planning, learning and knowledge


KABC II- interpretation model

Catell Horn Carol model or Lurias neuropsycholigcal processing model( recommended when an examinees performance on measures of crystalized intelligence would be negatively impacted by a non mainstream cultural background, hearing impairment, autism.


PPVT- 4 AGE range

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test: measures receptive vocabulary, consists of 228 cars that contain four pitures, examner verbally provides a stimulus word and examinee responds by indicating the picture that best corresponds to the meaning of thr word
2.6- 90 years of age
useful for people with motor or speech impairment,


Leiter 3 age range

culture fair measure of cognitive abilities for individuals 3 to 75 +


Leiter 3 purpose

can be administered without verbal instructions and is useful for individuals with language problems or hearing impairment, examinees need to match a set of response cards to corresponding illustrations on an easel