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Flashcards in lifespan development Deck (112)
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Genotype Vs Phenotype

Genotype- persons genetic inheritance
Phenotype- his or her observed chacteristics, which are due to heredity and environment


Bronfenbrenners Ecological Model

Five environmental systems or levels
Microsystem- childs immediate environment face to fce with school home, and neighborhood ( relationships with parents, siblings, peers and teachers
Mesosystem- interactions between components of the microsystem such as influence of family factors on the childs behavior at school
Exosystem- broader environment that affect the childs immediate environment and include parents workplace, school board,
Macrosystem- environmental influences such as cultural beliefs, economic conditions,
Chronosystem- environmental elements that occur over an individuals lifespan and impact the individual in ways such as SES


Rutter's Indicators

Six factors accurate predictors of child psychopathology: Severe martial discord, low SES, overcrowding or large family size, parental criminality, maternal psychopathology, placement of the child outside the home


Niche Picking

occurs when child actively seek out experiences that are consistent with their genetic predispotions


Critical vs sensitive periods

Ethology- branch of zoology that is dedicated to study of animal behavior,
Critical periods- specific predetermined periods of time of biological maturation when an organism is senstive to certain stimuli that can have a positive or negative affect
**Lorenz- found that goslings imprint on the firstmoving object they see during the first two to three days ( usually mother) follow and stay near to help survival, ** critical period for imprinting

Sensitive periods- longer in duration, more flexible than critical periods, not tied as closely to chronological age or maturational age



Recessive gene disorder, ( one from each parent) - lack an enzyme needed to metabolize phenylalanine ( amino acid) found in milk, bread, eggs, beginning a diet low in PKU prevents severe intellectual disability than can accompany this disorder


Down Syndrome

autosonomal disorder, extra chromosone 21 - characterized by intellectual disability, retarded physical growth, motor development, increased susceptibilty to alzheimer's diease, heart defects


Klinefelter Syndrome

occurs in males and due to the presence of two or more X chromosomes with a single Y , have a small penis and testes, develop breasts during puberty, limited interest in sexual activity, learning disabilities


Turner Syndrome

occurs in females and is caused by presence of single X chromosome, short in stature, webbed neck, absent development of secondary sex characteristics, impaired cognitive deficits


Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder

largely irrevesible symptoms, may result when mother drinks heavily during second half of the first trimester,
include facial abnormalities, limited phsyical growth, hearing impairments, cognitive deficits, behavioral problems, hyperactivity,
*most affected regions include corpus collusum, hippocampus, hypothalmus, cerebellum, basal ganglia and frontal lobes


Maternal Malnutrition

associated with miscarriage, stillbirth and low birth weight, may result in intellectual disability ,
*severe malnutrition in the third trimester determintal for the developing brain lead to a reduced number of neurons, lack of folic acid can lead in spina bifida


Cerebral Cortex

underdeveloped at birth, responsible for higher level cognitive functions, language, spatial skills, and complex motor activity,
*first few months primary and motoro areas of the cortex undergo substantial development, prefrontal cortex continues to mature through childhood and adolescence may not be fully developed till early 20s.



compesenate for neuronal loss by forming new snaptic connections and neural pathways and new neurons in the hippocampus


Early Reflexes, Babinski, Moro

Babinski- toes fan out and upward when soles of the feet are tickled
Moro- flings arms and legs outward and then toward the body in response to a loud noise or sudden loss of physical support



- least developed at birth, 6 months infants visual activity is close to that of a normal adult,
*depth perception develops first as kinetic( motion), binocular cues and pictorial cues, newborns prefer to look at high constrat patterns, prefer looking at faces by 2-5 days old, and then 2 months- prefer face of mother


Auditory Localization

ability to orient toward the direction of a sound is evident shortly after birth, seems to dissapear between 2-4 months and reppears and improves during the rest of 1st year.
*3 months, infants distinguish between different voices and prefer mothers voice,


Pain Perception

-newborns who were not given anthesthesia during circumsion had a more adverse reaction than those who received anthesthesia when given a routine vaccination 4-6 months later,
*full term infants who undergo painful medical procedures during infancy later exhibit heightened responsivity to pain , while preterm infants who experience those procedures exhibit reduced reactivity to pain later in infancy


Developmental Milestones 1-3 months

able to raise chin from ground, turn head side to side, by third month can play with hands and fingers and brings object in hand to mouth


4-6 months

rolls from abdomen to back, 5 months sits on lap and reaches and grasps, 6 months sits alone and stands with help,


7-9 months

good coordination, 8-9 months- sits alone without support, begins crawling, 9-10 pulls self to standing by holding furniture


10-12 months

stands alone and walks with help, 12 months takes steps alone


13-15 months

walks alone with a wide based gait, by 15 months creeps up stairs,


16-25 months

18 months runs clusismly, walks up stairs with hand held, 24 months- goes up and down steps alone, kicks a ball, turns pages of book, 50% of children use toliet during the day


25-48 months

30 months jumps with both feet, good hand finger coordination, 36 months rides tricyle, dresses and undresses simple clothing, completely toliet trained, 48 months- preference over right or left hand


Physical Maturation in Adolescence

Boys: early maturation- several benefits including popularity with peers, athletic skills, dissatisfaction with body image, increased risk for alcohol use
Late maturation- more childish, more attention seeking behaviors, less confidence, more susceptible to depression
Girls: Early maturation-- negative consequences such as poor self concept,unpopular, dissatisfied with physical development , low academic achievement, more likely to engage in sexual behaviors and drug and alcohol use, increased risk for eating disorder or depression
Late maturation- dissastified with appearance, treated like little girls, outperform peer with academic performance


Visual Changes in Adulthood

most adults notice inability to focus on close objects ( presbyopia) around age 40
65- visual changes interfere with reading, driving, rduced perception of depth, increased light sensivity, and deficits in visual search, speed of visual processing


Sexual Activity in Late Adulthood

sexual activity in mid life and earlier is a good predictor,
adults ages 57 to 85 years of age reported a frequency of sexual activity similar to the freqeuncy reported in earlier study of adults 18-59
survey of adults 60 + found that 43% of all respondents and 61% of respondents with current sex partners with more physically sastifying or unchanged compared to 40s


Adaption( Assimilation and Accommodation)

Assimilation- incorporation of new knowledge into existing schemas
Accommodation- modification of existing schemas to incorporate new knowledge


Sensiromotor Stage

birth-two years- Child learns about objects and other people through the sensory information they provide,
Subtage 1- Relexive Schemas- birth to 1 month- infant exercises his or her reflexes
Substage 2- Primary Circular Reactions- 1-4 months- infant attempts to repeat pleasurable events involving his or her own body
Substage 3- Secondary Circular Reactions ( 4-8 months) infant attempts to reproduce pleasurable events involving other people or objects
Substage 4- Coordinated Secondary Circular Reactions- (8-12 months) infant combines secondary circular reactions ( schemas) into new complex action sequences
Substage 5- tertiary circular reactions ( 12-18 months) - infant deliberately varies an action sequence to discover the consequence of doing so
Subtage 6- Mental Representation- (18-24 months) - infant develops representational symbolic thought which involves forming internal representations that allow him or her to think about absent objects and past events

*object permanence- allows the child to recognize that objects and people continue to exist when they are out of sight
Symbolic play and imitation also occur


Preoperational Stage

2-7 years old- symbolic( semotic( function- child to learn through the use of language, mental images and other symbols,
Precasual transductive reasoning-incomplete understanding of cause and effect
Magical thinking- belief that thinking about something will actually cause it to occur
Animism- tendency to attribute human characteristics to intimate objects
*do not recognize that actions can be reversed and focus on more noticeable details ( centration)