Physiological Psychology Flashcards Preview

Clinical Psychology > Physiological Psychology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Physiological Psychology Deck (119)
Loading flashcards...
1

Achromatopsia-

inheirted form of of complete color blindness that is caused by lack of of functioning in the cone cells
Cerebral achromatopsia- complete color blindness by lesion in the brain in occipitotemporal region

2

Agnosia:

tactile agnosia- inability to recognize familiar objects by touch

3

Agranulocytosis

, is an acute condition involving a severe and dangerous leukopenia (lowered white blood cell count), most commonly of neutrophils, and thus causing a neutropenia in the circulating blood.

4

Akathisia

movement disorder characterized by a subjective feeling of inner restlessness accompanied by mental distress and an inability to sit still. Usually, the legs are most prominently affected. Those affected may fidget, rock back and forth, or pace, while some may just have an uneasy feeling in their body.

5

Anomia

a form of aphasia in which the patient is unable to recall the names of everyday objects.

6

Anticholingeric effects

Dry mouth.
Blurred vision.
Dry eyes.
Constipation.
Urinary retention.
Dizziness due to drop in blood pressure on standing up
Cognitive problems (confusion)
Heart rhythm disturbance.

7

Aphasia

loss of ability to understand or express speech, caused by brain damage.

8

Dysprosody

which may manifest as pseudo-foreign accent syndrome, refers to a disorder in which one or more of the prosodic functions are either compromised or eliminated completely

9

Gerstmanns Syndrome:

in parietal loe, involves a combination of finger agnosia, right left confusion, agraphia( inability to write) , and acalculia( inability to perform simple mathematical calculations)

10

Neuroleptic Maligant Syndrome

rare side effect of antipsychotic drugs, characterized by a rapid onset of motor, mental, and autonomic symptoms including muscle rigidity, tachycardia, hyperthermia and altered consciousness. drug must be stopped as soon as symptoms develop

11

Paresthesia

burning or prickling sensation that is usually felt in the hands, arms, legs, or feet, but can also occur in other parts of the body. The sensation, which happens without warning, is usually painless and described as tingling or numbness, skin crawling, or itching.

12

Tardive Dyskinesia

Side effects of traditional antipsychotic drugs, most serious, more common in females and older patients. similar to those of hungingtos disease and include involuntary rhythmic movements of the jaw, lips, tongue,

13

prosopagnosia

a neurological condition characterized by the inability to recognize the faces of familiar people.

14

synesthesia

Joining senses- rare condition in which the stimulation of one sensory modality triggers another sensory modality , might hear a color or taste a shape

15

Tardive Dyskinesia

Side effects of traditional antipsychotic drugs, most serious, more common in females and older patients. similar to those of hungingtons disease and include involuntary rhythmic movements of the jaw, lips, tongue,

16

Visual Agnosia

Damage to the occipital lobe - apprerceptive visual agnosia occurs when a person is unable to perceive objects despite visual acuity,
Associative visual agnosia- person is unable to recognize an object that he or she is focusing on

17

Neuron- Three components

Dendrites- branch like, recieve information from other cells and conduct it toward the cell body
Cell body- several structures including, nucleusribosomes, golgi complex.
Axon- receives information from cell body to other cells,
covered by Myelin sheath- fatty substance that works an insulator

18

Action Potential

electrical impulse that travels quickly through the cell.

19

All or none principle

when the stimulation received by a neuron exceeds a given threshold, the resulting action potential will always be of the same intensity.

20

Acetylcholine

ACH- found in CNS and PNS
Myasthenia gravis- autoimmune disorder that attacks ACH receptors at neuromuscular junctions
ACH- involved in REM sleep, regulation of the sleep wake cycle and learning and memory.
**degeneration of ACH cells in areas that communicate with hippocampus are associated with Alzheimers disease.
Drugs that reduce the breakdown of ACH are used for alzheimers- tacrine ( cognex), donepezil( aricept) galantamine( Reminyl) and revastigmine( exelon)

21

Dopamine

classified as catecholamines- involved in personality, mood, memory and sleep ,
involved in movement and linked to disorders such as parkinsons and Tourettes disorder, oversensitivty to or excessive dopamine in the caudate nucleus contributes to Tourettes disorder.

22

Norepinephrine

important role in mood, attention, dreaming, learning and certain autonomic functions.
Catecholamine hypothesis- predicts that some forms of depression are due to lower than normal levels of tthis neurotransmitter.

23

Serotonin

inhibitory effect- mood, hunger, tempature regulation, sexual activity, arousal, sleep, aggression and migraine headache.
Elevated levels of serotonin contribute to schizophrenia, Autistic Disorder, and food restriction associated with Aneroxia Nervosa,
Low levels- play a role in aggression, depression, suicide, Bulimia Nervosa, PTSD and OCD.

24

Dopamine hypothesis of schizoprehnia:

disorder is due to elevated dopamine levels or oversensitivity of dopamine receptors

25

GABA

inhibitory - plays role in eating, seizure, anxiety disorders, motor control, vision and sleep.
Low levels of GABA have been linked to anxiety disorders and benzodiazepines and other CNS depressants reduce anxiety by enhancing the effects of GABA.
degeneration of cells that secrete GABA in the basal ganglia contribute to motor symptoms in hungingtons disease

26

Glutamate

excitatory neurotransmitter , plays role in learning and memory and in long term potential,
Excessive glutamate receptor activity( excitotoicity) can lead to seizures and may contribute to stroke related brain damage, huntingtons diease, Alzheimers disease,

27

Endorphin

inhibitory- analegesic properties and may be responsible for pain relief produced by accupunture, also involved in pleasurable experiences, memory, learning and sexual behavior.

28

Spinal Cord- Five groups

top to bottom: cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, and coccyx

29

Quadriplegia vs Paraplegia

Quadriplegia- involves a loss of sensory and voluntary motor functioning in the arms and legs.
Paraplegia- damage at the thoracic level- entails a loss of sensory and voluntary functioning in the legs.

30

Meninges

brain and spinal cord are encased in three membranes: dura mater, arachnoid, and pia mater