Flashcards in Clinical Psychology Deck (142)
What are Freuds 5 stages of psychosocial development?
Genital- Puberty up
What are Erikson's 7 Stages of development?
Trust vs mistrust 0-1.5
Autonomy vs shame 1.5- 3
Initiative vs guilt 3-5
Industry vs inferiorty 6-12
Identity vs role confusion 12-18
Intimacy vs isolation 18-40
Generativity vs stagnation 40-65
Ego intergrity vs despair 65 +
what are the three structures of personality according to Freud?
Id- develops at birth, has to do with life and death instinct and operates on the pleasure principle, and seeks immediate gratification
Ego- develops at 6 months of age, in response to ids inability to gratify all of its needs, and focuses on reality principle,
Supergo- develops at about age 4-5, and represents internalization of societies values and standards, attempts to permanently block the ids socially unacceptable impulses
What is repression?
Defense mechanism that takes information and maintains it in unconscious.
What is reaction formation?
Involves avoiding an anxiety evoking impulse by expressing the opposite
What is Projection?
Occurs when a threatening impulse is attributed to another person or other external source
What is the goal of psychoanyaltic psychotherapy?
Reduce or eliminate pathological symptoms by bringing them into consciousness
**Include using dreams, free association, transference and resistance -
All behavior is meaningful and serve some function
What are the four stages of Frueds therapy goals?
Confrontation-making statements that help the client see his or her behavior in a new way
Clarification- clarifying the clients feelings and restating his or her remarks in clearer terms
Interpretation- explicitly connecting current behavior to unconscious processes
Working through - allows the client to gradually assimilate new insights into his or her personality
What is Adler's telecological approach?
It is an approach that regards behavior as being largely motivated by a persons future goals, rather than past events
What are some key components of Adler's personality theory?
Inferiority feelings, striving for superiority, style of life and social interest
Inferiority feelings develop during childhood as result of real or perceived biological, psychological or social weakness.
Style of life- is specific ways a person chooses to compensate for inferiority and achieve superiorty
What are the two styles of life Adler discusses?
Healthy style of life- marked by goals that reflect optimism, confidence, and concern about the welfare of others
Mistaken Style of life- goals reflecting self centerdness, competitiveness, and striving for personal power.
Adlers view on maladaptive behavior?
represent a mistaken style of life, charcterized by maladaptive attempts to compensate for feelings of inferiority, lack of social interest.
Alder view on therapy goals?
collaborative relationship with client, helping the client identify his or her style of life and its conseqeunces and reorienting the clients beliefs and goals to establish more adaptive lifestyle.
What is lifestyle investigation and whose approach is it?
Adler uses it to yield information about the clients family constellations, hidden goals and basic mistakes.
Systematic Training for effective teaching?
alderian therapy that all behavior is goal directed, misbehavior of young children is viewed as four purposes, attention, power, revenge, or to display deficiency .
Jungs analytical psychotherapy personality theory?
made up of both unconscious and conscious factors
Conscious factors is oriented toward external world, governed by ego, and represents the individuals thoughts, ideas, feelings, sensory perceptions and memories.
Unconscious: personal and collective
Personal: includes experiences that were unconsciously perceived but now repressed or forgotten
Collective: memory traces that have been passed down from one generation to the next.
Archetypes- primordial images that cause people to experience and understand certain phenomena in an universal way.
What does Jung view as individuation?
Views developmental as contuining through the lifespan and growth after mid 30s.
**intergration of the conscious and unconscious aspects of the psyche that leads to the development of unique identity
Therapy goals of Jung?
Rebridge the gap between the conscious and personal and collective unconscious.
**interpretations designed to help client become aware of inner world,
Interested in drams, and dream work
Role of transference according to Jung?
Transference to be a projection of the personal and collective unconscious - crucial part of therapy,
Countertransference - tool that can provide the therapist about what is occurring during the course of therapy
Jungian optimistic point of view?
emphasizes the healthy aspects of the clients personality, and primarily focus on the here and now, with information from past being sought out only when it will help the client understand the present
Stages of Mahler Object relations personality development?
Normal infantile autism- occurs during the first months of life. Individual is self absorbed and oblivious to external environment.
Symbiotic phase: child becomes aware of the mother but is unable to differentiate between me and not me
Separation individuation - begins at 4-5 months, differenation, practicing, reapproachment, and object constancy
3 years of age, child has developed a permanent sense of self and object constancy
View of maladaptive behavior for object relations therapy?
result of abnormalities in early object relations, trace adult psychopathology to problems during separation individuation
According to Kernberg, result of adverse childhood experiences, indiviudal with borderline personality never integrated the positive and negative aspects of his her experiences with others, and goes between contradictory images
Object relations therapy techniques
provide the client with support, acceptance and other conditions that restore the clients ability to relate to others in meaningful ways.
**Bring maladaptive unconscious relationship dynamics into consciousness.
Focus on splitting, projective identification
Person centered therapy?
Rogers- based on belief that all people have an innate self actualizing tendency that serves as source of motivation and guides toward positive growth
Rogers personality theory concepts
the notion of self, each person has the ability to become self actualized ,, must remain unified, organized, and whole
Rogers view of maladaptive behavior
self becomes disorganized as the result of incongruence between self and experience when individual experiences conditions of worth.
Incongruence produces unpleasant visercal sensations that are subjectively experinced as anxety, may attempt to allievaite anxiety through distortion or denial
Rogers three facilitative conditions
Unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and accurate empathic understanding
Person centered therapists view on transference
do not view it as a necessary component of therapy, they do not foster or interpret it
Gestalt therapy founder and premises
Fritz Perls- person capable of assuming personal responsibility for his/her own thoughts, feelings, and actions and living as an integrated whole