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Tulane Dietetic Internship > Orientation MNT Study Guide > Flashcards

Flashcards in Orientation MNT Study Guide Deck (48)
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1

Hypertention

Elevated BP-- DASH

2

Hypercholesterolemia

High amounts of cholesterol in blood-- TLC

3

Gastric Ulcer

Low acidic diet with antacid;
Avoid pepper, chocolate, dairy type foods, spicy, and high in fat
Don't drink alcohol and smoking

4

Diverticulitis

An inflammation or infection of one or more small pouches in the digestive tract -

-- clear liquid and bland diet with little fiber, can increase in fiber if there are improvements; include antibiotics.

5

Crohn's disease

Chronic inflammation disease of the digestive tract

--Avoid eating "trigger" foods; consume a high calorie and protein diet.

6

Constipation

Difficulty emptying the bowel

-- high fiber diet which will increase the weight of your stool and speed up the passage through your intestine

7

Lactose intolerance

Inability to digestive lactose

-- Lactose free diet; avoid consuming milk and other dairy containing products

8

Myocardial Infarction (MI)

Inadequate blood flow or the lack of oxygen damages the heart muscle (Heart attack)

-- "Heart healthy" diet such as DASH and the Mediterranean diet

9

High triglycerides

Elevated LDL

-Low saturated fat diet such as DASH, TLC, and Med diet.
-Limit foods high in sugar to avoid converting excess CHO into TGL

10

Congestive Heart Failure

When the heart does not pump efficiently and does not deliver enough oxygen to the body

-- low sodium diet

11

Renal insufficiency

Kidney lose the ability to remove waste and balance fluids (kidney failure)

-limit fluids to output + 500mL
-low protein based on nutritional status
-limit sodium, potassium, and phosphorus

12

ESRD-on hemodialysis

End Stage Renal Disease: hemodialysis--a machine filters out wastes, fluids, and salts from your blood

-high protein
-controlled intakes of sodium, phosphorus, and potassium
-increase sugar to meet daily calorie intake

13

Liver failure

Can cause PEM--> Protein-Energy Malnutrition:

-High energy diet with amounts of CHO and Protein being similar
-Increased amounts of Fat to prevent protein breakdown that can cause toxins.

14

Pancreatitis

Occur when the digestive enzymes are activated before they are released into the small intestine and begin attacking the pancreas

--Small meals, low fat
--EN/PN; IV fluid and pain medication

15

NIDDM-elderly

Non-insulin dependent DM

-- CHO counting focusing on TOTAL CHO intake
--meet nutritional needs
--reducing energy and fat
--Diabetes self-management education and healthy food choices

16

IDDM-child

Insulin-dependent DM

--Diabetes exchange list with insulin therapy such as the pump
--CHO counting

17

A Fib--on Coumadin

Atrial Fibrillation on Warfarin (anticoagulant) --irregular, rapid heart beat that can cause poor blood flow

--the goal is to manage symptoms of fluid retention, shortness of breath, and fatigue

--normal diet with consistent vitamin K
--restrict fluid prn
--individualized sodium intake to less than 2g/day

18

Cholecysititis

Inflammation of the gallbladder-- Low FAT diet

19

20% below IBW

Underweight

-After identifying the cause, create an individualized diet to prevent further weight loss or reverse it (general, healthful diet, etc.)
-treat underlying cause

20

20% above IBW

Obese

-Low energy diet (-500 kcal/d for a one pound weight loss per week)
-incorporates DASH or TLC to prevent/management additional health complications

21

100# above IBW

Morbidly obese
-Low energy diet that incorporates DASH or TLC to prevent/management additional health complications

22

Stage 4 decubitus ulcer

Pressure ulcer

-Based on nutritional screening: treat deficiencies
-increase fluid intake
-INCREASE PROTEIN
-Provide an oral nutritional supplement if needed

23

Dysphagia

Swallowing difficulties--Texture-specific diet; NDD (National Dysphagia Diet)

24

ASCVD

Arteriosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease--

Based on the Cardiovascular Risk Calculator
-TLC diet or Mediterranean style diet with statin therapy; emphasize on benefits of fish oil

25

GERD

Gastroesphoageal Reflux Disease--gastric fluid or bile irritate the esophagus

--small meals
--Avoid foods that can make GERD symptoms worse, such as high acidic and spicy foods; can incorporate antacids

26

Acute Renal Failure

Limit fluids, protein, sodium, and potassium; increase CHO

27

Milk

Calories: 100-160
CHO:12
Pro:8
Fat:0-8

28

bread/starch

Calories: 80
CHO:15
Pro:3
Fat:1

29

Meat-low fat

Calories: 45
CHO:0
Pro:7
Fat:0-3

30

Meat-med fat

Calories: 75
CHO:0
Pro:7
Fat:4-7