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Flashcards in MNT Exam questions Deck (118)
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1

Calculate IBW.

Men: 106 + (6# per inch over 5 ft)
Women: 100 + (5# per inch over 5 ft)

Underweight: 100-(2# per inch under 5ft)

2

Calculate %IBW.

(Current WT/Ideal WT) x 100 = %IBW

3

Calculate BMI.

[(WT in INCHES)/ (HT squared in inches)] x 703

4

Adjusted BW

(Actual BW -- IBW) x .25 + IBW

5

Amputation: BKA

Below Knee Amp (Lower leg + foot):
5.9% less

6

Amputation: AKA

Above Knee Amp
16% less

7

Amputation: foot

1.5% loss

8

Amputation: arm

5.0% loss

9

Amputation: hand

0.7% loss

10

What are normal calorie, fluid, and protein needs?

Calories: 25-30 kcal
Protein: 0.8-1.0 g/kg
Fluid: 1 ml/kcal (25-40ml)

11

What are the target blood glucoses for a person WITH DM?

Fasting: 80-120
Post-Prandial:

12

What is the HgbA1c test? What is the optimal range?

A test to identify the average plasma glucose concentration over approximately 3 months.
Optimal range: 6.0 -6.5%

13

Name 5 common DM medications (oral) and explain how they work in the body:
--Metformin

-First line of drugs
-for obese and overweight pt with normal kidney function

Action:
-suppresses glucose production by the liver.
-increase insulin sensitivity--> this results increased glucose uptake, reduced plasma glucose concentrations, and decreased gluconeogenesis
-helps reduce LDL and TG levels
-not associated with weight gain

14

Name 5 common DM medications (oral) and explain how they work in the body:
--Sulfonylureas

Action:
-increase insulin release from the beta cells in the pancreas

15

Name 5 common DM medications (oral) and explain how they work in the body:
--DPP-4 Inhibitors

Action:
-Glucagon increase blood glucose levels, DPP-4 reduces glucagon and blood glucose levels
-It increases incretin levels, which will increase glucagon release --> increase insulin secretion, reduce gastric emptying, and decrease blood glucose levels

16

Name 5 common DM medications (oral) and explain how they work in the body:
--Meglitinides

Action:
-Binds to the ATP-dependent K channels on the membrane of the pancreas.
-This causes an increase in intracellular concentration of potassium, making the cell membrane more positive
-The depolarized membrane causes the calcium channels to open
-The rise in calcium leads to an increase in fusion of insulin to the cell membrane --> increase the release of (pro)insulin

17

Name 5 common DM medications (oral) and explain how they work in the body:
--Thiazolidinediones (TZDs)

Action:
-Reduces the amount of fat content in the blood stream by increasing the fatty acid storage in the adipocytes.
-This leads to the increased need for carbohydrates for energy

18

Explain the mode of action/timespan of the following insulins:
--Lantus

Long-acting insulin
Duration: 22-24 hours

19

Explain the mode of action/timespan of the following insulins:
--Humalog/Novalog

Rapid-Acting Analogues
Duration: 2-4 hours

20

Explain the mode of action/timespan of the following insulins:
--Levamir

Long-acting insulin
Duration: 12-22.1 hours based on dosage

21

Why should people with diabetes eat a high fiber diet?

the insoluble fiber can slow down the absorption of sugar.

22

A patient with decubitus ulcers has increased needs for what?

Energy and protein

23

What is dumping syndrome?

Food bypass the stomach too rapidly and enter the small intestine undigested.

24

What is Crohn's disease?

An autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract.

25

What nutrients/foods should be limited for Crohn's disease?

Avoid "trigger" foods or foods that can cause abdominal pain.

26

What lab values are affected by hydration status? How are they affect?

BUN ^
Creatinine ^
Urine Specific Gravity ^
Potassium ^
Na ^ with dehydration
Glucose _

27

What foods should be restricted in dumping syndrome pt?

simple sugars

28

What nutrient MAY be restricted in hepatic encephalopathy?
How do you know when to restrict it?
What should be the predominant source of this nutrient and what foods are recommended?

Protein
.25-.5 g/kg protein
Plant protein

Prevent increase in Ammonia

29

What are some consequences of non-compliance for dialysis patients? (what happens when the toxins in the blood build up?

Hyperkalemia- large amounts on potassium in the blood.
Can cause cardiac arrest and death.

30

What are the general fluid needs of a pre-HD pt? Pt on HD?

Pre-HD: restricted
HD: 1000 ml +output