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Tulane Dietetic Internship > MNT Exam Vocab > Flashcards

Flashcards in MNT Exam Vocab Deck (52)
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1

Creatinine

is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced and excreted at a fairly constant rate by the body.

Kidney maintain the blood creatinine in a normal range.
Elevated levels signifies impaired kidney function.

2

Osmolarity

Osmotic concentration

The concentration of a solution expressed as the total number of solute particles per liter (solvent).

The higher the osmolarity, the more solute in the solvent. Think thicker solution.

3

Osmolality

A measure of the number of dissolved particles per unit of water in serum.

A LOW serum osmolality means a higher than usual amount of water in relation to the amount of particles dissolved in it.

Think, the lower the number, the LESS particles in the water. More water, over hydrated.

Low--> over hydration and edema
High--> deficient fluid volume of cells

4

Syncope

temporary loss of consciousness caused by a fall in blood pressure

5

Malignant

very virulent or infectious.

6

Stomatitis

inflammation of the mucous membrane of the mouth

7

Opportunistic Infection (OIs)

Infections that occur MORE FREQUENTLY and are MORE SEVERE in individuals with weakened immune systems, including people with HIV.

Usually doesn't affect patients with healthy immune systems.

Think, a weak immune system presents an "opportunity" for the pathogen to infect.

8

Dyspnea

shortness of breath or difficulty breathing

9

Pleural effusion

a buildup of fluid between the tissues that line the lungs and the chest

10

TIA

—(Transient Ischemic Attack)

A brief stroke-like attack that, despite resolving within minutes to hours, still requires immediate medical attention to distinguish from an actual stroke.

11

Diuresis

the production of excessive amounts of urine

12

CABG

Coronary Artery Bypass Graft surgery (CABG)

Is a procedure used to treat coronary artery disease or CHD.
Helps to improve blood flow to the heart.

13

Cancer promoters

promotes the proliferation of cancer (cell growth) throughout the body.

Promoters take advantage of genetic mutations and cause cells to grow rapidly.

14

Metastatic

having to do with metastasis, which is the spread of cancer from the primary site (place where it started) to other places in the body

15

Neoplasm

literally means “new growth”;

an abnormal mass of tissue, the growth of which exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of normal tissue

16

Emesis

the action or process of vomiting

17

Cachexia

weight loss, wasting of muscle, loss of appetite, and general debility (physical weakness) that can occur during a chronic disease

18

Mucositis

inflammation of a mucous membrane

19

Carcinoma

A type of cancer that develops in the tissue that lines the inner or outer surfaces of the body.

You can actually see the tumor bump.

20

Benign

not harmful in effect; in particular, (of a tumor) not malignant

21

Candidiasis

a fungal infection typically on the skin or mucous membranes caused by candida

22

Leukopenia

a reduction in the number of white cells in the blood, typical of various diseases

23

Thrombocytopenia

a deficiency of platelets in the blood.
This causes bleeding into the tissues, bruising, and slow blood clotting after injury

24

Achlohydria

refers to states where the production of hydrochloric acid in gastric secretions of the stomach and other digestive organs is absent or low

25

Azotorrhea

is the excessive discharge of nitrogenous substances in the feces or urine

26

Blind loop (syndrome)

occurs when part of the small intestine forms a loop that food bypasses during digestion. The presence of this “blind loop” means food may not move normally through the digestive tract

27

Bilroth II

is an operation in which the greater curvature of the stomach is connected to the first part of the jejunum in a side-to-side manner

28

Dyspepsia

vague upper abdominal symptoms that may include upper abdominal pain, bloating, early satiety, nausea, or belching

29

Flatulence

perceived excess gas in the intestinal tract

30

Meconium-ileus

is a bowel obstruction that occurs when the meconium in a person’s intestine is even thicker and stickier than normal meconium, creating a blockage in the ileum.