Ontological Arguement For The Existence Of God Flashcards Preview

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The ontological argument is what ?

It is a priori argument, it depends on logic rather than sense experience


Strength of ontological argument

-due to its priori nature, it means if its valid then valid for believers and non- believers.
- fits with the 3rd cosmological argument that Gods existence is necessary.
-challenge by Kant- that exist.- it is not a real predicate- this fails as there is a difference between real 100 Thalers and imaginary 10 thalers. Can’t buy with imaginary- shows existence is predicate


Imitations of the ontological argument

Definition of God is incoherent- problems with the traditional attributes of a Jurado-xian God
-Existence of god is a certainty then it eliminates the need of faith .


Descartes ontological arguement

Seventeenth-century mathematician and philosopher.
Gave his ontological argument-book of meditations
He argued that people are born with some ideas already imprinted in their minds,including the idea of God.


Descartes idea of god

-supremely perfect being.
-property of perfection=existence- existence as a predicate: “existence cannot be separated from God in the same way that a mountain cannot be separated from a valley that goes with it.”


Descartes ontological argument key ideas came from where?

Key ideas from meditative,
God placed within each person
- the idea of God= craftsman
- somethings beyond doubt- maths/ exist of god
- to demonstrate existence of god- have to show that it cannot be doubted.


Descartes ontological argument- demonstrated, via triangle

Triangle- immutable (unchanging) nature- 3 sides
180 degree interior
- the definition of a triangle would be the same- even if no one knows what a triangle is.
- God like a triangle- immutable nature.- with existence as a key predicate.


Anselm’s ontological argument

Proslogion 3- 2nd ontological argument
-God is that which nothing greater can be conceived.
-could it be conceived that such a being doesn’t exist or stops existing?
- which is greater : that than which nothing greater can be conceived that could go out of existence?or
That than which nothing greater can be conceived that cannot go out of existence?- meaning His existence is necessary, God cannot not exist- God exists in the “truest greatest way”.


Proslogion 2- 1st ontological arguement

God is that than which nothing greater can be conceived
- whatever qualities God has- he has them to the maximal degree.- ps14. 1- everyone has a concept of God. - he exists In the mind.
But to Maximally great- he must exist in reality too- therefore God exists.


Aselm sees God as what

Omnibenevolence existence- existence= great mKing property of God.


Alselms argument was written for what?

For “faith seeking and understanding”not as a attempt to convert unbelievers.
Made reference to the ‘fool’ who does not understand that God must exist: the fool says in his heart” there is no God” Psalm 53.1 - appeals to reason alone.


Gaunilo- criticism of Anselm- island

If we replace God in the argument with the “lost island”
We can imagine the most excellent island- such an island would not be the most excellent unless it existed in reality- are imagined island must exist.
Using island instead of God, can see flaws in the argument- just defining something as superlative doesn’t make it exist.


Anselms response to Gaunilo

Ontological argument works only for God- God not only the greatest possible being but his existence is necessary whereas an island exists, contingently.
“Is you think of the greatest possible being you “ conceive of a being what cannot be thought of existing” island is not the same- Island does not have as part of conception maximal greatness that God does.


Another way Gaunilo criticises Anslem

You cannot define things into existence: having an idea of something does not mean that the thing was to exist- cannot prove that what is said what is real .


Kant criticism of the ontological argument- Descartes

Argued that existence is not predicate- predicate is a descriptor or characteristic.
Existence is not a characteristic of something.- if we know something exists, we do not know anything about its characteristics. We know instead, that there is an actual example of this thing .


Kant says existence is not a predicate- how does he explain this ?

There are objects that you can think of not without thinking of its predicates but can think of God without him existing. Existence- In the imagination& existence in reality. Can imagine 100 Thalers does not mean they are real