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The problem of evil is both what?

it is both a logical problem and evidential problem- attempts to defend God despite the existence of evil and suffering in the world are called theodicies.


The problem of evil as a logical problem?

This inconsistent argument says that these three beliefs cannot be held at the same time without contradiction;
that evil exists- that God is all loving- God is all powerful


What does the logical problem of evil assume?

The logical problem of evil assumes that an all- loving God and all power-full God would not want any evil and suffering in the world.
- Concludes that if there is evil and suffering in the world a God with these attributes cannot exist.


What is the logical problem of evil argument?

- An A priori argument- if the premises are true then the conclusion follows.


What is a solution to the logical problem of evil?

- Might suggest that God is not totally powerful, that God is not totally loving, or that evil is an illusion or is actually Good for us in spite of appearing bad.


What is natural evil?

natural evil is said to be that which makes causes suffering but does not come from any human wrongdoing, for example many diseases and extreme weather conditions such as floods and hurricanes.


What is moral evil?

moral evil is said to be that which causes suffering as a result of human wrongdoing, for example murder, war and poverty.


What is the evidential problem of evil?

Involves a posteriori reasoning.
- Argument says that there is too much evil and suffering in the world for the belief ' there Is an all-good, all powerful God' to be the best explanation of evidence.


What might a better explanation of evil be instead of the evidential problem?

Good and evil simply happen by chance, without the agency of God.


What did John Stuart Mill argue about the evidential problem of evil?

The extent of evil and suffering in the world does not suggest a good God, but instead suggests that there is a creator behind the world. it must be a malevolent creator.


The theodicy of Irenaeus, who is Irenaues?

Very early Christian


Irenaeus accepted what?

He accepted that evil and suffering exist and that God appears to let them continue


Irenaeus argued that God allows what?

God allows evil and suffering so that people can develop into freely chosen mature relationships with God.- said there has to be evil and suffering in the world for us to appreciate good.


Irenaeus said there has to be what?

There has to be fewer good things in the world in order for virtues such as kindness, bravery and generosity to exist at all.


Irenaeus says that we are made in what ?

In Gods image but we have to grow into Gods likeness.
Free will is an important part of being made in Gods image.


Irenaeus said we could not have what?

We could not have a free relationship With God unless we gave genuine options to choose otherwise.Evil has to be a real option for us.
We cannot grow totally into the likeness of God in this world, and there is a life after death in which we can complete our spiritual development.


John Hicks soul- making theodicy( twentieth and twenty- first centuries) what approach did hick take to the problem of evil ?

He took an irenaean approach to the problem of evil.


What did Hick describe the world as?

The world as ‘vale of soul-making’, using words from the poet John Keats


Hick explores his theodicy where ?

In his book Evil and the Love of God 1966


Hick saw the world as what?

Saw the world as a place where our characters and souls are shaped.


Hick said that evil and suffering are not what?

Not an unfortunate accident but a part of Gods loving plan to help us grow into a free relationship with him.


Hick said God deliberately does what?

Deliberately keeps himself partly hidden from us so that there is ‘epistemic distance’ - we can make free choices if God does not force himself on us in a immediate way. - through tackling challenges and hardships we can learn to turn to God through free choice.


Hick thought that after death, we continue with that?

We continue with our spiritual journeys towards a free choice for God, and this option is open to people of any belief.


For both Irenaeus and hick, what?

Humans can make a free choice to turn from evil towards good, and therefore grow into a free relationship with God.


Criticisms of Irenaean theodicies including Hick- the idea that evil exists in the world for our own good can seem what?

Self- contradictory- if evil( including moral evil ) is really good for us then there is confusion between good and evil, making concepts such as sin and salvation difficult to comprehend.


The idea that God put evil in the world in order to help us develop and grow can become unacceptable, how ?

When the suffering is great, for example when there is childhood cancer or an act of terrorism or genocide.


Criticism- irenaean theodicy:- the idea that Gods love is difficult for us to comprehend can present what problems?

If we are trying to be more Godlike and do not understand what that means.


The argument that God has to allow evil in order for us to have free will suggests what?

Limitations in Gods omnipotence


Tackling challenges and hardships makes some people lose what ?

Lose faith rather than gain it. An omniscient God should know this in advance of making such people suffer.


The Irenaean theocracy does not give an adequate explanation if what?

Of why animals, very small babies of people with learning difficulties suffer.