Flashcards in Nervous System Deck (33)
What does the nervous system do?
Controls and is the communicating system of the body
How does the nervous system communicate?
using electrical impulses, which are rapid and specific and cause almost immediate response
What other system does the nervous system work with?
endocrine to regulate and maintaining body homeostasis
What is sensory input?
sensory receptors monitor changes occurring both inside and outside the body. These changes are called stimuli.
What is intergration?
processes and interprets sensory information and decides what should be done
What is motor output?
it then effects, or causes a response by activating muscles and glands
What does the nervous system consist of?
What are the three parts of the brain?
Describe the cerebrum
right and left hemispheres
joined by corpus callosum.
What are the functions of the cerebrum?
initiation of movement
Describe the frontal lobe of the cerebrum.
it is involved in memory and reasoning, speech, thought, emotion and skilled movements
Describe the hypothalamus
involved in motivation and regulation and the intergration of many metabolic and autonomic processes.
Controls body temp, hunger, thirst, and circadian cycles and links the nervous and endocrine systems
What is a foramen?
an opening that allows the passage of structures from one region to another
Describe the spinal cord
concerned with reflex actions involving the body below the neck, conducting sensory impulses from skin and muscles to the brain and carries motor impulses from the brain to muscles below the neck
how many pairs of spinal nerves are there?
what are mixed nerves?
provide a 2 way communication system between the zonal cord and parts of the arms, legs, neck and trunk of the body
how many cervical nerves are there?
8 pairs C1-C8
how many thoratic nerves are there?
12 pairs T1- T12
how many lumbar nerves are there?
5 pairs L1-L5
how many sacral nerves are there?
5 pairs S1-S5
How many coccygeal nerves are there?
Describe a neuron?
consist of a cell body and dendrites (extensions) and an axon or nerve fibre, which carries information from the cell body to or from the CNS
What are further characteristics of a neuron?
extremely long lived but cannot undergo mitosis and divide
high metabolic rate needing continuous glucose and oxygen
What to sensory nerves/ neurons do?
carry stimuli from peripheral areas to the zonal cord and downwards to the brain
What do motor nerves are neurons do?
carry stimuli from the spinal cord to striated muscles to initiate contraction
what are somatic sensory fibres?
sensory fibres delivering impulses from the skin, skeletal muscles, and joints
What are the nerves from the internal organs called?
visceral sensory fibres
What does the PNS do?
it keeps the CNS informed of events going on in and outside of the body
What is the characteristic of the sympathetic division?
the system as a whole is usually stimulated
fear, flight or fight