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Midwifery 1201 > Breastfeeding > Flashcards

Flashcards in Breastfeeding Deck (38)
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What are the 3 stages of lactation?

Lactogenesis 1
Lactogenesis 2
Lactogenesis 3


describe lactogenesis 1

breast development and colostrum production from approx 16 weeks gestation


Describe lactogenesis 2

Onset of copious milk secretion occurring between 32 and 96 hours after birth


Describe lactogenesis 3

maintenance of milk production


What is the areola?

the pigmented area at the centre of the breast. Lobules (alveoli) it is the mammary gland that produces and secrets milk


What is the duct?

It carries milk secreted by the lobules through the breast tissue to open up at the nipple


What is the Glandular tissue?

develops during puberty, but it is only during pregnancy that the development of the glandular tissue us complete and has the ability to produce milk.


What happens after birth?

oestrogen and progesterone levels drop. Prolactin and oxytocin levels rise in response to touch, smell and sight of baby. Baby begins spontaneous breast seeking behaviour. Mothering behaviours initiated.


What are the 2 major hormones that regulate lactation?

prolactin and oxytocin


Where are the hormones produced?

In the pituitary gland that is located at the base of the hypothalamus


What is the prolactin response?

1. baby suckles
2. sensory impulses pass from the nipple to the brain
3. Prolactin secreted by the anterior pituitary gland goes via bloodstream to the breasts
4. Acini (milk- secreting) cells produce milk


What are the effect of the prolactin response?

more secreted at night
suppresses ovulation
levels peaks after the feed, to produce milk for the next feed


What is the prolactin receptor theory?

Surges of prolactin prime the receptor sites

the expulsion of the placenta opens receptor sites
Unprimed receptor sites shut down, reducing potential for milk production

Frequent prolactin release maximises long term milk supply


What does oxytocin do?

Works on our feelings and emotions
Lowers blood pressure and improves sleep
reduces stress levels by taking on cortisol
reduces pain sensitivity
Boosts the immune system


What is the oxytocin reflex?

1. baby suckles
2. sensory impulses pass from the nipple to the brain
3. oxytocin secreted by the posterior pituitary gland goes via blood stream to the breasts
4. Myo-epithelial (muscle) cells contract and expel milk


What are the effects of the oxytocin reflex?

helped by sight, sound and smell of baby
becomes conditioned over time
Hindered by anxiety, stress, pain and doubt
works before or during the feed to make the milk flow


What makes the milk to be ejected through the lactiferous ducts?

the action of contraction of the myo-epithelial cells surrounding the alveoli occurs under the influence of oxytocin this contraction causes the milk to be ejected from the lactiferous duct

known as the let down reflex


Describe the let down reflex.

can be felt as a tingling sensation in the breast. in the first few days after birth may feel a uterine contractions and experience increased blood loss through the vagina. the let down reflex is initially triggered by the baby suckling but also seeing , hearing touching and smelling her baby. When the child is older it may be triggered by thinking abut feeding or hearing another baby cry.


What is Feedback Inhibitor of Lactation (FIL)?

FIL is a protein secreted by the lactocytes which regulate milk production at a local level. as the alveoli distend and there is a build up of FIL and milk synthesis by the lactocytes is inhibited. When the breastmilk is effectively removed, and distension removed FIL levels will fall and milk synthesis will increase


Describe skin to skin.

Skin to skin contact calms the baby and helps regulate their heartbeat, temperature and breathing. It also stimulates them to seek the breast. The mother goes through physical and emotional changes at this time which prepare her for breastfeeding and mothering.


What is the recommendation for skin to skin?

Undisturbed skin to skin contact between mother and bab after birth. baby gently placed on the mother for skin to skin with nappy and worm towel placed over them. Skin to skin should be the default method of care for all babies at birth.


Why is breast milk good?

it is always the right temperature, requires no preparation, and it is available even in environments with poor sanitation and unsafe drinking water. Breastfeeding guarantees babies access to reliable and sufficient quantity of affordable, nutritious food


When is optimal breastfeeding started?

starting within one hour of giving birth, exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life and continued breastfeeding until the age of 2


What is colostrum?

This is produced by the breast from around 16 weeks of pregnancy and is the first food for a breastfed baby


What are the special features of colostrum?

packed with protective factors
concentrated nutrition
strong anti- inflammatory
stimulates gut growth
small volumes- intentionally
laxative effect- to clear meconium


What are the risks for baby by not breastfeeding?

Respiratory infections
Type 1 Type 2 diabetes


What are the risks for mum by not breastfeeding?

breast cancer
ovarian cancer
hip fractures
heart disease

reduces risk of post natal depression
weight comes of faster


How do babies pick up their familial microbiome?

when they pass through the vagina at birth and through their mother's milk in the postnatal period and beyond


Why is prolonged skin to skin especially important in c section cases?

because the bay never passed through the vagina so didn't pick up the microbiome from there so pro longed skin to skin and breastfeeding are extra important


What is epigenetics?

changes in genes can be passed down to future generations via maternal line. Breastfeeding may result in epigenetic changes which impact on:
baby's brain development
baby's immune system
baby's metabolic system