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Midwifery 1201 > Reproductive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reproductive System Deck (39)
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1

What are the benefits of pubic hair?

Protection against infection
Reduces friction
Signal Reproductive ability
Pheromones?

2

What are the glands in the vulva?

Paraurethral glands
Vestibular glands

3

What are the purpose of the vulvar glands?

To produce lubrication to reduce friction during sex

4

What forms the vagina?

moist epitherial cells

5

What are the vaginal secretions a mix of?

cervical mucus
transudate fluid from surrounding blood vessels

6

What do the vaginal secretions do along with bacterias in the vaginal microbiome do?

They form a biofilm that covers the vaginal canal and protects the reproductive tract from infections.

7

What is the natural pH of the vagina?

3.5-4.5

8

Describe glycogen?

It's a rich form of glycogen. The cells in the vagina and rich in glycogen.

9

How does the vagina have a acidic pH?

Because the cells in the vagina transform the glycogen into lactic acid.

10

What happens to the level of bacteria in the vagina during the menstrual cycle?

The levels of bacteria increase with higher levels of oestrogen and then decrease with lower levels of oestrogen

11

How many nerves are in the clitoris?

around 8000

12

What is the top of the uterus called?

the fundus

13

Describe the uterine tubes.

Mobile tubes of smooth muscle that helps to move the egg down to the uterine cavity with a wave like motion. They are not fixed to the ovary

14

What is the Fimbria?

Thsi is the part that moves the over the ovary at the time of ovulation to "hoover" up the egg into the tube

15

Where does fertilisation happen?

At the ampulla

16

How does an ectopic pregnancy happen?

Sometimes what the uterine tube opens into the peritoneal space (abdomen) the egg can be released into the abdominal cavity where sperm can still reach it.

17

What does the ovarian ligament do?

It holds the ovary in place but does not connect it to the uterine cavity

18

What are the two main parts of the uterus?

The body and the cervix

19

What are the functions of the cervix?

protecting from infection
keeps the pregnancy inside when closed and opening to allow menstruation or the baby to come out

20

What is the cervix made of?

smooth muscle fibres that function as a sphincter that is able to maintain the cervix when contracted and closed during pregnancy also able to respond to oxytocin to open during labour

21

What are the three layers of the uterus?

endometrium
myometrium
perimetrium

22

What is the myometrium?

formed of 3 different types fo muscle fibres

23

What are the three types of muscle layers in the myometrium?

longitudinal
circular
transverse

24

Describe the longitudinal layer of the myometrium.

Vertical fibres going from top to bottom. There are more present at the fundus. During pregnancy they remain relaxed to allow the uterus to grow

25

Describe the circular layer of the myometrium.

They surround the bottom part of the uterine body and the cervix. During pregnancy they remain contracted to keep the uterus closed and keep the growing baby inside. They are also present around the horns of the uterus.

26

Describe the transverse layer of the myometrium.

It's a mixture of the the longitudinal and circular layers. They are in an oblique direction. They enclose the spiral artery which feeds the uterine muscle and the endometrium where the placenta is. When these fibres are contracted the blood flow in the spiral arteries is reduced. This is an important mechanism in preventing postpartum haemorrhage (these muscles need to contract, squeezing the arteries closed and therefore stopping the bleeding)

27

Which artery does the ovarian artery feed from?

The aorta

28

Where does the uterine and vaginal arteries feed from?

internal iliac arteries

29

Where does the vulva get its blood from?

it receives an arterial blood supply from the internal pudendal arteries. This means that it will bleed easily if subjected to trauma but will also heal rapidly.

30

Where do uterine contractions start?

At the right horn where there is a pacemaker it then travels down gradually to the lower segment of the uterus.