Neck structures and muscles Flashcards Preview

Anatomy - Large Animal > Neck structures and muscles > Flashcards

Flashcards in Neck structures and muscles Deck (44)
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1

What are the foramina of the atlas in the horse?

lateral, alar, and transverse foramen

2

What courses through the transverse foramina?

vertebral vessels and nerves

3

What is the course of the vertebral artery through the cervical vertebrae?

The vertebral artery courses through the alar foramen and then through the lateral vertebral foramen prior to entering the vertebral canal

4

What is the course of the first cervical spinal nerve through the cervical vertebrae?

The first cervical spinal nerve courses from the vertebral canal through the lateral vertebral foramen, then divides into dorsal and ventral branches

5

What does the ventral branch of the first cervical spinal nerve pass through?

the alar foramen

6

In what species does the alar foramen perforate entirely through?

the ruminant

7

What is the fovea dentis?

a structure located on the dorsal surface of the ventral arch on the atlas that articulates with the dens of the axis

8

What does the cranial articular surface of the atlas articulate with?

the occipital condyles of the skull

9

What does the caudal articular surface of the atlas articulate with?

the axis

10

What are the parts of the transverse process of the cervical vertebrae?

ventral and dorsal tubercle

11

What goes through the transverse canal in the cervical vertebrae?

vertebral artery, vein, and nerve

12

What type of fibers does the vertebral nerve have and what ganglion does it come from?

sympathetic post-ganglionic from the cervical-thoracic ganglion

13

What cervical vertebrae does transverse canal course through in the ruminant?

C2-C6

14

What cervical vertebrae does transverse canal course through in the horse?

C1-C6

15

What is special about C6 in the horse and ruminant?

it is block-like and the ventral tubercle of the transverse process is more extensive than that in the previous vertebrae

16

What is C7 known as?

the transitional vertebrae

17

What large animal species have a nuchal ligament?

horse and ruminants

18

What are the parts of the nuchal ligament?

the funicular and laminar part

19

What is the funicular part of the nuchal ligament?

the top, thick, most dorsal

20

What is the laminar part of the nuchal ligament?

it fans ventrolaterally from the funicular part and connects with the cervical vertebra

21

What is the function of the nuchal ligament?

to hold up the head

22

Where does the nuchal ligament terminate?

on the occipital bone

23

What structures are located inside the nuchal ligament?

bursa

24

What are the names of the bursae in the nuchal ligament?

supraspinous, cranial nuchal, caudal nuchal

25

Where is the supraspinous bursa located?

it is the most caudal and signifies the transition between the nuchal ligament and the supraspinous ligament

26

Which bursa are present at birth and which develop post natally?

the supraspinous bursa is present at birth and the cranial and caudal bursa develop post natally

27

What are the neck muscles of the horse (5)?

cleidomastoideus, sternomandibularis, stylothyroideus, stylohyoideus, omohyoideus

28

What are the neck muscles of the ruminant (7)?

cleidomastoideus, cleidooccipitalis, sternomastoideus, sternomandibularis (sternozygomaticus in the goat, not present in the sheep), stylothyroideus, stylohyoideus, omohyoideus

29

What muscles does the goat have that other ruminants do not?

sternozygomaticus

30

What is the insertion of the sternohyoideus and where is it located in respect to the sternothyroideus?

onto the basihyoid; medially located