Flashcards in Neck structures and muscles Deck (44)
What are the foramina of the atlas in the horse?
lateral, alar, and transverse foramen
What courses through the transverse foramina?
vertebral vessels and nerves
What is the course of the vertebral artery through the cervical vertebrae?
The vertebral artery courses through the alar foramen and then through the lateral vertebral foramen prior to entering the vertebral canal
What is the course of the first cervical spinal nerve through the cervical vertebrae?
The first cervical spinal nerve courses from the vertebral canal through the lateral vertebral foramen, then divides into dorsal and ventral branches
What does the ventral branch of the first cervical spinal nerve pass through?
the alar foramen
In what species does the alar foramen perforate entirely through?
What is the fovea dentis?
a structure located on the dorsal surface of the ventral arch on the atlas that articulates with the dens of the axis
What does the cranial articular surface of the atlas articulate with?
the occipital condyles of the skull
What does the caudal articular surface of the atlas articulate with?
What are the parts of the transverse process of the cervical vertebrae?
ventral and dorsal tubercle
What goes through the transverse canal in the cervical vertebrae?
vertebral artery, vein, and nerve
What type of fibers does the vertebral nerve have and what ganglion does it come from?
sympathetic post-ganglionic from the cervical-thoracic ganglion
What cervical vertebrae does transverse canal course through in the ruminant?
What cervical vertebrae does transverse canal course through in the horse?
What is special about C6 in the horse and ruminant?
it is block-like and the ventral tubercle of the transverse process is more extensive than that in the previous vertebrae
What is C7 known as?
the transitional vertebrae
What large animal species have a nuchal ligament?
horse and ruminants
What are the parts of the nuchal ligament?
the funicular and laminar part
What is the funicular part of the nuchal ligament?
the top, thick, most dorsal
What is the laminar part of the nuchal ligament?
it fans ventrolaterally from the funicular part and connects with the cervical vertebra
What is the function of the nuchal ligament?
to hold up the head
Where does the nuchal ligament terminate?
on the occipital bone
What structures are located inside the nuchal ligament?
What are the names of the bursae in the nuchal ligament?
supraspinous, cranial nuchal, caudal nuchal
Where is the supraspinous bursa located?
it is the most caudal and signifies the transition between the nuchal ligament and the supraspinous ligament
Which bursa are present at birth and which develop post natally?
the supraspinous bursa is present at birth and the cranial and caudal bursa develop post natally
What are the neck muscles of the horse (5)?
cleidomastoideus, sternomandibularis, stylothyroideus, stylohyoideus, omohyoideus
What are the neck muscles of the ruminant (7)?
cleidomastoideus, cleidooccipitalis, sternomastoideus, sternomandibularis (sternozygomaticus in the goat, not present in the sheep), stylothyroideus, stylohyoideus, omohyoideus
What muscles does the goat have that other ruminants do not?