Lecture Test 3 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture Test 3 Deck (109)
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1

List the functions of the skeletal system.

Support
Mineral storage
Lipid storage
Blood cell production
Protection
Leverage (force of motion)

2

Shapes of bones

Flat: skull
Long: femur
Irregular: vertebrae
Sesamoid: patella
Short: carpals/tarsals

3

What is the composition of bone matrix? What substance comprises
about two thirds of the matrix? What percentage do cells contribute?

Bone matrix is 2/3
Collagen: Ca(PO4)2 is 1/3
Cells contribute 2%

4

What is the histological difference between compact bone and spongy
bone? Which one has osteons (Haversian systems)? Which one
bone marrow?

Osteons (Haversian system): compact bone (looks like bulls eye)
Bone marrow: spongy bone (looks spiky with spaces)

5

6. What is the difference between endochondral and intramembranous
ossification? Which type is most common in humans?

Endo: in cartilage, develops first as hyaline cartilage then ossifies into bone. Most common in humans.
Intra: dermal ossification, gives rise to clavicle and mandible

6

7. What effect does exercise have on bone?

Increases bone density and mass

7

8. How do bones grow in length? What two hormones control growth at the epiphyseal plate?

Length is added at the epi plates where cartilage is laid down then later changes into bone.
Hormones: HGH and thyroxine

8

How do appositional growth and bone remodeling take place?

Must break down bone with osteoclast then rebuild with osteoblast to widen or repair bone

9

How does bone deposition and bone destruction vary throughout life?

Early life: deposition exceeds destruction
Age 20-40: deposition equals destruction
Age 40+: destruction exceeds deposition

10

For what mineral is the skeleton the primary reservoir? What two
hormones control the blood level of this mineral?

Calcium, regulated by parathyroid hormone and calcitonin

11

How do osteopenia and osteoporosis differ?

Osteopenia: Naturally occurring bone loss with age. Does not effect function.
Osteoporosis: Severe, abnormal bone loss. Affects normal function of bone.

12

Name the two major divisions of the skeletal system and the major
components of each.

Axial Appendicular
Skull Pectoral girdle
Vertebrae Upper extremities (arms)
Sternum Pelvic girdle
Ribs Lower extremities (legs)


13

Define Sutures

Immovable joints in the skull: saggital, coronal, lambdoidal, squamous

14

Define Paired Cranial Bones

Parietal and temporal
(all other cranial bones are unpaired)

15

Define Unpaired Facial Bones

mandible and vomer
(all others are paired)

16

4 Skull Bones containing Paranasal Sinuses

Ethmoid
Sphenoid
Maxillary
Frontal

17

Define Fontanelles

Cranial openings in newborns aka "soft spots"

18

Be able to distinguish the five types of vertebrae.

7 cervical
12 thoracic (facets for ribs)
5 lumbar (bear most weight)
sacrum and coccyx (fused)
Hole = transverse process

19

What are the four normal curvatures of the vertebral column and when
do they develop?
What are the names for and location of the abnormal curvatures of the vertebral column?

Normal Abnormal
Primary: during fetal life Scoliosis: lateral curvature
Secondary: when learn to walk Kyphosis: cervical curvature
Lordosis: lumbar curvature

20

What Forms the Ankle

Medial malleolus of tibia and
Lateral malleolus of fibula

21

What Forms the Brest bone

Sternum

22

What Forms the Chin

mandible

23

What Forms the Collar Bone

clavicle

24

What Forms the Forehead

frontal

25

What Forms the Heel

calcanus

26

What Forms the Knee Cap

patella

27

What Forms the Nasal Septum

Perpendicular plate of ethmoid

28

What Forms the Shoulder Blade

scapula

29

What Forms the Toes and Fingers

phalanges

30

How does the pelvis of a female differ from that of a male? Why?

Female: rounder opening, sacrum flatter, angle at pubis greater than 90 degrees
Male: heart-shaped opening, sacrum more curved inward, angle at pubis less than 90 degrees
CHILD BEARING!!!