A&P Test 2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in A&P Test 2 Deck (59)
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1

List the concepts of the cell theory

All living things are composed of cell, all cells come from pre-existing cells.

2

What terms can be used to describe biological membranes

Phospholipid bilayer, selectively permeable

3

What structural components of the cell membrane carry out most of the functions of the cell membrane?

Proteins

4

What properties of a substance will determine whether or not it can diffuse across the plasma membrane?

Small, electrically neutral = simple diffusion

5

Define Active Transport

movement across a membrane/concentration gradient that requires energy (ATP)

6

Define Crenation

RBC loses water in hypertonic solution (shrinks)

7

Define Diffusion

Going from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Passive transport across a membrane/concentration gradient. small electrically neutral

8

Define Endocytosis

Taken into a cell. Receptor mediated.

9

Define Exocytosis

Secreted/taken out of cell

10

Define Facilitated Diffusion

Passive, carrier proteins transport molecules too large to fit through channel proteins. Does NOT require energy/ATP.

11

Define Hemolysis

Bursting of a RBC and releasing its hemoglobin.

12

Define Hypertonic

Solution outside cell has more solute particles than what's inside the cell, results in water flowing out of cell (crenation)

13

Define Hypotonic

Solution outside cell has less solute particles than what's inside the cell, results in water flowing into cell and possibly bursting the cell

14

Define Isotonic

Solute particles inside and outside the cell are equal. Normal RBC, no change in shape, no osmotic water flow in or out of cell.

15

Define Osmosis

The diffusion of water across a cell membrane

16

Define Osmotic Pressure

The force required to stop osmosis of water across a concentration gradient/cell membrane.

17

Define Phagocytosis

The "eating" of large particles by a cell

18

Define Pinocytosis

Small, soluble particles taken in (drank) by a cell

19

Define Selectively Permeable

Membrane that allows only certain things to pass through

20

Define Vesicular Transport

Active transport through the vesicles of a cell

21

Which of the Defined involves as carrier proteins

facilitated diffusion

22

What happens to a RBC that is Hypertonic

shrink water drawn out of cell crenation

23

What happens to a RBC that is Hypotonic

swell and burst water taken in the cell

24

What happens to a RBC that is isotonic

nothing

25

The DNA in the nucleus of a resting cell is loosely coiled into_________
which becomes visible in a dividing cell as _____________.

chromatin;
chromosome

26

What is the genetic code and where is it located?

Code is DNA. Located in nucleus.

27

What is the central dogma of molecular biology?

Protein synthesis from DNA.
DNA -> transcription to -> mRNA translation to -> protein

28

What is transcription? Translation?

Synthesis of mRNA
Synthesis of proteins

29

Name the three types of RNA and indicate their functions.

1. rRna (ribosomal RNA): structure of Ribosome
2. mRNA (messenger RNA): carries codon; shortest life
3. tRNA (transfer RNA): carries anticodon

30

Which type carries the codon? The anticodon? Which one is the most short-lived?

mRNA (messenger RNA): carries codon; shortest life
tRNA (transfer RNA): carries anticodon