Flashcards in A&P Test 2 Deck (59)
List the concepts of the cell theory
All living things are composed of cell, all cells come from pre-existing cells.
What terms can be used to describe biological membranes
Phospholipid bilayer, selectively permeable
What structural components of the cell membrane carry out most of the functions of the cell membrane?
What properties of a substance will determine whether or not it can diffuse across the plasma membrane?
Small, electrically neutral = simple diffusion
Define Active Transport
movement across a membrane/concentration gradient that requires energy (ATP)
RBC loses water in hypertonic solution (shrinks)
Going from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. Passive transport across a membrane/concentration gradient. small electrically neutral
Taken into a cell. Receptor mediated.
Secreted/taken out of cell
Define Facilitated Diffusion
Passive, carrier proteins transport molecules too large to fit through channel proteins. Does NOT require energy/ATP.
Bursting of a RBC and releasing its hemoglobin.
Solution outside cell has more solute particles than what's inside the cell, results in water flowing out of cell (crenation)
Solution outside cell has less solute particles than what's inside the cell, results in water flowing into cell and possibly bursting the cell
Solute particles inside and outside the cell are equal. Normal RBC, no change in shape, no osmotic water flow in or out of cell.
The diffusion of water across a cell membrane
Define Osmotic Pressure
The force required to stop osmosis of water across a concentration gradient/cell membrane.
The "eating" of large particles by a cell
Small, soluble particles taken in (drank) by a cell
Define Selectively Permeable
Membrane that allows only certain things to pass through
Define Vesicular Transport
Active transport through the vesicles of a cell
Which of the Defined involves as carrier proteins
What happens to a RBC that is Hypertonic
shrink water drawn out of cell crenation
What happens to a RBC that is Hypotonic
swell and burst water taken in the cell
What happens to a RBC that is isotonic
The DNA in the nucleus of a resting cell is loosely coiled into_________
which becomes visible in a dividing cell as _____________.
What is the genetic code and where is it located?
Code is DNA. Located in nucleus.
What is the central dogma of molecular biology?
Protein synthesis from DNA.
DNA -> transcription to -> mRNA translation to -> protein
What is transcription? Translation?
Synthesis of mRNA
Synthesis of proteins
Name the three types of RNA and indicate their functions.
1. rRna (ribosomal RNA): structure of Ribosome
2. mRNA (messenger RNA): carries codon; shortest life
3. tRNA (transfer RNA): carries anticodon