LECTURE 2 GENETICS AND MACROMOLECULES Flashcards Preview

HUMAN GENETICS > LECTURE 2 GENETICS AND MACROMOLECULES > Flashcards

Flashcards in LECTURE 2 GENETICS AND MACROMOLECULES Deck (15)
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1

GENE

sequence of DNA that codes for a product

2

Genome

complete set of DNA for an organism

3

Exome

sequence of protein-coding genes

4

Genomics

comparison and analysis of genomes

5

Mutation

hange in DNA sequence

6

DNA is a...

...double helix
•The backbones go in opposite directions
•The bases have specific pairs
•A with T
•C with G

7

TYPES OF MACROMOLECULES

•Nucleic acids
•Carbohydrates
•Lipids
•Proteins

8

NUCLEIC ACID
DNA
(4 ASPECTS)

•Double helix (antiparallel)
•A,T,C,G
•In nucleus (and mitochondria)
•Stores genetic information

9

Mixed Molecules

•Lipoproteins
•Glycoproteins
•Glycolipids
•Proteoglycans

10

NUCLEIC ACID
RNA (4 ASPECTS)

•Single stranded
•A,U,G,C
•Made in nucleus, moves to cytoplasm
•Translates genetic information so it can be made into proteins

11

Carbohydrates: sugars and starches

•Fuel
•Make ATP
•Store energy as glycogen
•Structure
•Cell recognition
•Backbone of DNA and RNA

12

Lipids: fats and oils

•Fuel
•Structure
•Signaling between cells

13

Proteins (6 ASPECTS)

•Common structure of the 20 amino acids
•String amino acids together to make proteins •Structure
•Enzymes
•Transport
•Hormones
•Receptors

14

The “Central Dogma” of Biology

Information flows from DNA to RNA to proteins

15

How do Proteins specifically fold?

- Primary Structure
- Secondary Structure
- Tertiary Structure
- Quaternary Structure