LECTURE 3 Cells and Chromosomes Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in LECTURE 3 Cells and Chromosomes Deck (25)
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1

All cells have

•DNA (genetic info)

•Ribosomes (make proteins)

2

Prokaryotes

---no nucleus

 

•Bacteria

•Archaea

3

Eukaryotes

Have nucleus and other organelles

4

Multicellular organisms (eukaryotes)

Every cell has the same DNA (information)

•Except?

red blood cells and gametes

5

Different cell types EXPRESS different genes

DIFFERENTIATION – cell is specialized

6

The Plasma Membrane

•Lipid bilayer with proteins and

carbohydrates

 

Selective Barrier

•Separates cell from the environment

•Lets some materials across to keep the cell functioning properly

 

•Similar structure for organelle

membranes

7

DNA + protein =

chromatin

8

Euchromatin=

•Loosely packed

•Interphase

•Active genes

9

Heterochromatin

•Tightly packed

•Metaphase

•Inactive genes

10

 (Endoplasmic Reticulum)

Rough ER (RER)

•Bound ribosomes

•Synthesis of secreted proteins and glycoproteins

11

(Endoplasmic Reticulum)

Smooth ER (SER)

•Lipid Synthesis

•Membrane synthesis

12

Golgi Apparatus

•Polarized stack of membranes

•Enzymes modify proteins from ER

•Add & modify sugars

•Material moves between stacks via transport vesicles •Many final destinations

13

Protein synthesis occurs in different places Cytoplasmic proteins:

•Made of free ribosomes in the cytoplasm

•Proteins are soluble (hydrophilic)

14

Protein synthesis occurs in different places

Membrane proteins and secreted proteins:

•Made on ribosomes bound to the ER

•Sorted in the Golgi apparatus

•Membrane proteins are hydrophobic or amphipathic •Secreted proteins can be either hydrophilic or hydrophobic (or amphipathic!)

15

Lysosomes: Acidic organelles ?

Digest food & polymers to recycle monomers Phagocytosis and Autophagy

16

Mitochondria?

makes ATP (energy for the cell)

17

Sperm delivers...

DNA (genetic information) – the egg provides everything else

18

Cytoskeleton

Support for the cell

•Microtubules (tubulin)

•Microfilaments (actin)

•Intermediate Filaments (keratins)

•Other proteins link these structures together

19

Diploid and Haploid

Diploid cells contain two complete sets (2n) of chromosomes. Haploid cells have half the number of chromosomes (n) as diploid - i.e. a haploid cell contains only one complete set of chromosomes. Cell Division and Growth. Diploid cells reproduce by mitosis making daughter cells that are exact replicas.

20

Endosymbiosis

symbiosis in which one of the symbiotic organisms lives inside the other.

21

CELL STRUCTURES

22

Sandwich model

23

Difference between Nucleus and Nucleolus

Nucleus stores DNA;

Nucleolus makes

ribosomes

24

25

What does Ribosomes make?

Proteins