Immune System - OpenStax Chapter 42 Flashcards Preview

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1

Read first 64 pages Mean Genes

...Progress...

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Human immune system many parts

- Physical Barriers - Innate immune system - Adaptive immune system

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2 trillion cells

Non-self molecules include those from; -bacteria INCOMPLETE

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Physical and chemical barriers

- Unbroken skin - mucus membranes - earwax - cilia (pushing stuff out of respiratory tract) - stomach acid

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cells of the immune system

------------stem cell----------------- INCOMPLETE

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innate immune system

inflamation INCOMPLETE

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Inflammation makes the area inhospitable

attracts macrophages (wbc) to engulf bacteria plasma accumulates (swelling)to dilute toxins increased blood flow increases temperatures (redness)

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complement and cytokines are

proteins secreted by immune sytem cells

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complement and cytokines are

proteins secreted by immune sytem cells

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Complement proteins

plasma proteins that attract phagocytes and destroy bacterial plasma membranes, trigger mast cells to degranulate

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cytokines proteins

interferons: alert other components of immune system to viral infections interlukins - cause fever and decrease iron in blood, invigorate phagocytes

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Innate vs Adaptive immune system

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adaptive immune system is diverse, specific and remembers

* Needs to be stimulated - Antigens - Cytokines - Primary immune response - needs to learn an antigen - Secondary immune response - faster response (memory cells)

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antibodies are part of the adaptive immune response

Macropage (cell) presents antigen (target) to activate T cell INCOMPLETE

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Summary of immune system

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Types of antibodies

- Immune system makes polyclonal antibodies... INCOMPLETE

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Antibody

photomada...

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how can your genes make antibodies that recognize almost any antigen?

antibody genes regions V ariable D iversity J oining C onstant photo

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The thymus weeds out antibodies that recognize self antigens (targets)

- Immature T cells enter the thymus - If they recognize a "self"... INCOMPLETE

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Vaccines have been around for a long time

- China, 11 century, used powdered smallpox scabs - Observed by British in 1796 - Edward Jenner modified it - used cowpox instead of smallpox - Smallpox eradicated from the wild in 1977

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Vaccines activate the adaptive immune system

- inactive or weakened pathogen * pathogen is the organism that makes you sick - Stimulates the primary immune response * B cells start making antibodies and memory cells If infected later, will stimulate secondary immune response * memory cells... INCOMPLETE

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Why does my choice matter to others?

"When most of the population is immunized spread of the disease is constrained"

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why do you need a flu shot each year?

* Capsid - protein shell * Lipid envelope - remains of plasma membrane of cell that made the virus * Hemagglutinin - "Key" that binds receptor on cell - 17 kinds known * Neuraminidase - Enzyme (cuts virus away from receptor of infected cell) - 9 kinds known * Name flue strain by proteins, i.e. H1N5 - Always many varieties of flu circulating

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Influenza is:

an RNA virus