Larsen 4 Flashcards Preview

Physical Anthropology > Larsen 4 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Larsen 4 Deck (35)
Loading flashcards...
0

Abnormal hemoglobin

Hemoglobin altered so that it is less efficient in binding to and carrying oxygen

1

Admixture

The exchange of genetic material between two or more populations

2

Balanced polymorphism

Situation in which selection maintains two or more phenotypes for a specific gene in a population.

3

Capillaries

Small blood vessels between the terminal ends of arteries and veins

4

Deme

A local population of organisms that have similar genes, interbreed, and produce offspring.

5

Directional selection

Selection for one allele over the other alleles, causing the allele frequencies to shift in one direction

6

Disruptive selection

Selection for both extremes of the phenotypic distribution; may eventually lead to a speciation event.

7

Endogamous

A population in which individuals breed only with other members of the population

8

Equilibrium

A condition in which the system is stable, balanced, and unchanging

9

Exogamous

Refers to a population in which individuals breed only with non members of their population

10

Fitness

Average number of offspring produced by parents with a particular genotype compared to the number of offspring produced by parents with another genotype.

11

Founder effect

The accumulation of random genetic changes in a small population that has become so isolated from the parent population due to the genetic input of only a few colonizers.

12

Frame shift mutation

The change in gene due to the insertion or deletion of one or more nitrogen bases, which cause the subsequent triplets to be rearranged and the codons to be read incorrectly during translation.

13

Gene pool

All genetic info in the breeding population

14

(G6PD) glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase

An enzyme that aids in proper functioning of red blood cells; its deficiency, a genetic condition, leads to hemolytic anemia.

15

Hardy Weinberg law of equilibrium

A mathematical model in population genetics that reflects the relationship between frequencies of alleles and of genotypes; it can be used to determine whether a population is undergoing evolutionary changes

16

Hemoglobinopathies

A group of related genetic blood diseases characterized by abnormal hemoglobin.

17

Hemolytic anemias

Conditions of insufficient iron in the blood due to the destruction of red blood cells resulting from genetic blood diseases, toxins, or infectious pathogens

18

Huntington's chorea

A rare genetic disease in which the central nervous system degenerates and the individual loses control over voluntary movements. Symptoms often appear between 30-50

19

Induced mutations

Refers to those mutations in the DNA resulting from exposure to toxic chemicals or radiation.

20

Klinefelters syndrome

A chromosomal trisomy in which makes have an extra X chromosome, resulting in an XXY condition, affected individuals typically have reduced fertility

21

Macroevolution

Large-scale evolution, such as a speciation event, that occurs after hundreds or thousands of generations.

22

Melanic

Refers to an individual with high concentrations of melanin

23

Microevolution

Small-scale evolution, such as changes in allele frequency, that occurs from one generation to the next.

24

Mutagens

Substances, such as toxins, chemicals, or radiation, that may induce genetic mutations.

25

Nonmelanic

Refers to an individual with low concentrations of melanin

26

Nonsynonymous point mutation

A point mutation that creates a triplet coded to produce a different amino acid than that of the original triplet.

27

Point mutations

Replacements of a single nitrogen base with another base, which may or may not affect the amino acids for which the triplet codes.

28

Positive selection

Process in which advantageous genetic variants quickly increase in frequency in a population

29

Reproductive isolation

Any mechanism that prevents two populations from interbreeding and exchanging genetic material.