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Prokaryotes

Organisms having cells with no internal compartments; ie, single-cell bacteria.

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Eukaryotes

Organisms with internal compartments separated by membranes, enclosed two major parts of cells.

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Two major cell parts

Nucleus and cytoplasm

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Nucleus

The largest organelle in a cell. It houses one copy of nearly all genetic material, or Dna, of that organism. It is covered by a nuclear membrane, or nuclear envelope, which keeps the contents of the nucleus separate from the rest of the cell.

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Cell membrane

A semipermeable membrane surrounding the entire cell. Separating one cell from the next.

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Mitochondrion

Considered the "powerhouse" of the cell, because it generates the most energy. The number of mitochondria per cell varies by tissue type and by organism.

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Cytoplasm

The fluid that fills the cell and majntains the cells shape. Organelles are suspended in the cytoplasm, which can also store chemical substances. Some Dna is stored in the cytoplasm.

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Endoplasmic reticulum

Surrounds the nucleus. It plays and important role in protein synthesis.

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Cell wall

Provides a rigid shape and controls the movement of molecules into and out of the cell.

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Flagellum

Is a whiplike structure attached to some prokaryotes. Rotated by a motorlike system located in the outer layers of the cell, the flagellum enables locomotion.

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Nucleoid region

The genetic material of the prokaryotic cell, but unlike the nucleus of the eukaryotic cell it is not contained within a membrane. A prokaryotic cell has about one-thousandth the genetic material of a eukaryotic cell.

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Somatic cells

Also called body cells, comprise most tissues, such as bone, muscles, skin, brain, lung, fat, and hair.

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Gametes

Sex cells, sperm in males, and ova, otherwise called eggs, for females.

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Genetic code

DNA

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Genome

The complete set of genes in an individual cell is called a genome

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Homoplasmic

Dna is homolasmic, meaning it is the same in each and every cell.

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Mitochondria

Energy producing (ATP) organelles, located in the cells cytoplasm. They posses their own independent dna.

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ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)

A high energy molecule that powers cells and, in turn, powers every tissue in the body.

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DNA bases

A-adenine
T-thymine
G-guanine
C-cytosine

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Nucleotide

Every unit of sugar, phosphate, and nitrogen base forms a single nucleotide.

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Complementary bases

Guanine and cytosine are complementary
Adenine and thymine.

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Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs)

Variations in the DNA sequence due to the change of a single nitrogen base.

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Replication

Somatic cells use mitosis
Gametes use meiosis

Starts with one cell, then multiplies into multiple cells until a full body, where cells are still dying and being replaced

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Zygote

Single celled fertilized egg.

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Matriline

DNA. Such as mitochondrial DNA, whose inheritance can be traced from mother to daughter or son.

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Heteroplasmic

Refers to a mixture of more than one type of organellar DNA. Such as mitochondrial DNA, within a cell or a single organisms body. Usually due to the mutation of the DNA in some organelles but not in others

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Heterozygous

The condition in which a pair of alleles at a single locus on homologous chromosomes are different

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Homeotic (HOX) genes

Also known as homebox genes, they are responsible for differentiating the specific segments of the body, such as the head, tail, and limbs, during embryological development

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Homologous

Refers to each set of paired chromosomes in the genome

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Homozygous

The condition in which a pair of alleles at a single locus on homologous chromosomes are the same