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Flashcards in Larsen 5 Deck (47)
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Adult stage

The third stage of life, involving the reproductive years and senescence.

1

Aging

The process of maturation

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Allen's Rule

The principle that an animal's limb lengths are heat-related; limbs are longer in hot environments and shorter in cold environments.

3

Basal metabolic rate (BMR)

The rate at which an organism's body, while at rest, expends energy to maintain basic bodily functions; measured by the amount of heat given off per kilogram of body weight.

4

Basal metabolic requirement

The minimum amount of energy needed to keep an organism alive.

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Bergmann's rule

The principle that an animal's size is heat-related; smaller bodies are adapted to hot environments, and larger bodies are adapted to cold environments

6

Bone mass

The density of bone per unit of measure

7

Cline

A gradual change in some phenotypic characteristic from one population to the next.

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Cognitive abilities

Refers to the capacity of the brain to perceive, process, and judge information from the surrounding environment

9

Deciduous dentition

Also known as baby teeth or milk teeth, this is the first set of teeth, which form in utero and erupt shortly after birth

10

Diaphyses

The main midsection, or shaft, portions of long bones; each contains a medullary cavity.

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Epiphyses

The end portions of long bones; once they fuse to the Diaphyses, the bones stop growing longer.

12

Functional adaptations

Biological changed that occur during an individual's lifetime, increasing the individual's fitness in the given environment.

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Growth velocity

The speed with which an organism grows in size, often measured as the amount of growth per year.

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Homeostasis

The maintenance of the internal environment of an organism within an acceptable range.

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Homeothermic

Refers to an organism's ability to maintain a constant body temperature despite great variations in environmental temperature

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Hypercholesterolemia

The presence of high levels of cholesterol in an organism's blood; this condition may result from the dietary consumption of foods that promote high cholesterol or through the inheritance of a genetic disorder.

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Hypothermia

A condition in which an organism's body temperature falls below the normal range, which may lead to the loss of proper body functions and, eventually, death

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Hypoxia

Less than usual sea-level amount of oxygen in the air or in the body.

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Intratrauterine

Refers to the area within the uterus

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Lactation

The production and secretion of milk from a female mammal's mammary glands, providing a food source to the female's young

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Life history

The timing and details of growth events and development events from conception through senescence and death.

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Macronutrients

Essential chemical nutrients, including fat, carbohydrates, and protein, that a body needs to live and to function normally.

23

Melanin

A brown pigment that determines the darkness or lightness of a humans skin color due to its concentration in the skin.

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Melanocytes

Melanin-producing cells located in the skins epidermis

25

Menarche

Refers to the onset of menstruation in an adolescent female.

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Menopause

The cessation of the menstrual cycle, signifying the end of a females ability to bear children.

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Micronutrients

Essential substances, such as minerals or vitamins, needed in very small amounts to maintain normal bodily functions.

28

Motor skills

Refers to the performance of complex movements and actions that require the control of nerves and muscles

29

Nonmineralized

Refers to bone reduced to its organic component