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Grade 11 World Religions > Judaism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Judaism Deck (90)
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What is YHWH?

It is how Jewish people spell Yahweh. Yahweh is the name God first gave to the people. (also know as "I am who I am" or "To be"). They spell it YHWH, because it is spelled without any vowels, thus making it unpronounceable because they think that God is too great and powerful for you to call Him by name.


What is the significance of the synagogues?

After the Jewish people were exiled to Babylon, Jews were dispersed among other nations so they set up a bunch of synagogues so that they would not have to be dependent on the Temple (located in Jerusalem). After 70 CE when the Temple was destroyed, even more synagogues were built.
~Traditional Jews pray 3 times a day


What are the two purposes of the synagogues?

~they are places were Torah is taught (school or education)
~they are places of worship outside Jerusalem


Define: Ashkenazim

Central and Eastern European Jews and their descendants


What happens inside the synagogues involving the Torah?

It contains an ark, or cabinet, where the Torah scrolls are kept. The ark is usually on the eastern wall so that the congregation faces Jerusalem when they face the ark. The Torah is read from a raised platform, and the rabbi speaks from a pulpit to explain the Torah. A lamp is kept burning at all times to remind people that God is present.


Define: Covenant

An agreement of mutual faithfulness, like a contact or alliance between two parties; "I will be be our God and you shall be my people"; the agreement binds the parties together with mutual privileges and obligations


Define: Diaspora

The scattering of Jews outside of Israel in both ancient and modern times


Define: Halahah

“Laws” or “the path”; the oral tradition of Judaism


Define: Holocaust

The systemic killing of over six million Jews before and during World War II


Define: Messiah

A word meaning “the anointed one”; the word “Christ” comes from the Greek word meaning the same thing


Define: Prayer of Sanctification

A prayer to make something sacred


Define: Revelation

The act of showing or revealing something that was hidden


Define: Righteous

Describes one who is just, or who is in a right relationship with God


Define: Secular Jew

An ethnic Jew who is not religious


Define: Sephardim

Primarily Spanish, Portuguese, and North African Jews and their descendents


Define: Shabbat

Hebrew word meaning "Sabbath"


Define: Shiva

A seven-day period of mourning


Define: Shoah

From the Hebrew word for "catastrophe", "calamity", or, as it is used translated, "holocaust"; it refers to Nazi Germany's deliberate attempt to exterminate the Jewish race between 1933 and 1945


Define: Talmud

The compilation of written interpretation of the oral Torah (the Halakhah); after the second defeat of the Jews by the Romans in 135 CE, the rabbis began to write down and interpret this oral Torah



Hebrew word for the sacred writings of Judaism; the word is formed from the first Hebrew letter of the tree parts of the Jewish scriptures (what Christians call the Old Testament): Torah, Neviim, Ketuvim


Define: Zionism

A movement that began in the nineteenth century for the purpose of creating a Jewish state in what is now modern Israel; today, "Zionism" refers to strong support for the State of Israel


What are the statistics related to Judaism?

* Judaism is the 6th most popular religion in the world
* In Canada, it is the 3rd most popular religion.
* Canada has the 4th largest Jewish population globally.
* 330 000 Canadian Jews who originated from Russia and Eastern Europe emigrated to escape persecution during the late nineteenth and twentieth centuries
* Others are associated with the 40 000 Holocaust survivors who came to Canada In 1945 after World War II
* Another wave of Jewish immigrants came from French colonies in North Africa in the 1950s. Most settled in large cities such as Montreal and Toronto


What is Orthodox Judaism?

It is the most strict out of all the Judaism branches.


What are the characteristics of the Orthodox branch?

~Orthodox Jews continue to observe all the ancient rules and practices
~They want to avoid "watering down" the Jewish faith
~They believe God gave the whole Torah --spoken and written-- to Moses at Mount Sinai
~Being Orthodox means following the commandments of the Torah, strictly observing the Sabbath and other Jewish Holy days, using Hebrew in the synagogue, dressing modestly, and following dietary laws
~men and women sit separately in the synagogues
~Judaism can only be passed down to children by the mother


What is Reform Judaism?

It is the least strict out of all the Judaism branches. It attracted Jews who had mixed more frequently with the rest of the population. They wanted to enjoy freedom like everyone else, participate in intellectual life and work with non-Jews.


What are the characteristics of the Reform Judaism branch?

~They begin to interpret scripture with more modern methods
~They become less concerned with traditional purity laws, kosher laws, and the desire to return to the homeland
~use a combination of Hebrew and English for religious services
~Men and women sit together in the synagogue
~Women are ordained as rabbis
~Many, but not all, believe if one parent is Jewish the children are Jewish
~Individualism is encouraged, each person must decide what beliefs and practices are key to his or her personal life
~They often accept secular moral values (the values of society in general) but live by traditional values as well
~They stress tikkun olam--repairing the world through social action


What is Conservative Judaism?

It is in between the Orthodox and Reform Judaism. It arose as a reaction to Reform Judaism, meaning it was the last branch to be established.


What are the characteristics of Conservative Judaism?

~it follows many, but not all, of the 613 commandments of the Torah, and old traditions such as the order of prayers, the use of Hebrew, and some dietary laws
~It is open to modern historical methods of study, but considers Reform Judaism too loose in its interpretation of the scripture
~the needs of the community and its Jewish identity always comes before the individuals wants and needs
~Active participation in synagogue is very important
~Like Reform Jews, conservatives
~Men and women sit together in the synagogue
~Women are sometimes ordained as rabbis
~It is the largest branch of the Judaism in Canada


Explain: Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur

~it is the Jewish New Year, but it falls in late September/ Early October
~It begins a ten-day period of repentance, ending with the festival of Yom Kippur (Days of Awe)
~The two days Rosh Hashanah and the eight days that follow concentrate on an assessment of conducts and behaviour in the previous years
~Jews request forgiveness from God and from other human beings
~on Saturday evening, before Rosh Hashanah, a forgiveness service is held at the synagogue
~An important ritual at this service is the sounding of the Shofar, which is a ram's horn
~Also known as the day of atonement, Yom Kippur is the most solemn religious day of the Jewish year, marked by a 25 hours fast and prayer of repentance
~Regular activities are avoided on this day, as repentance is so important
~Signs of comfort and luxury are not allowed
~No food or drink is allowed to demonstrate that this day is better spent on prayer


Explain: Hanukah

~Festival of the dedication or the festival of lights
~Eight-day period, usually falls in December, celebrates the events of Macccabean Revolt
~In Jerusalem, a small army reclaimed the temple, then the ceremonies were dedicating the temple to place over eight days
~When people try to rekindle the sacred lamp in the temple, there was only enough oil to last one day
~According to legend however, the oil continued to burn in the temple for eight days
~As part of the celebration, the candle is lit for each of the eight days in a special candle or labrum or menorah
~menorahs have 9 branches each branch is for one of the 8 nights of Hanukkah and the 9th candle, known as the shammus (servant), which is often placed in the center and used to light the other candles
~Families gather to light the candles and recite special blessings every night