Flashcards in Christianity Deck (59)
Who is St. Paul?
often referred to as the founder of Christianity along with St. Peter. Came from Jerusalem to Rome to build the early Christian community and establish the Church which is still the central place for Christianity
Who is Gutenberg?
Johannes Gutenberg invented the printing press & the Bible was the first book printed
Who is Menno Simmons?
Founder of the Mennonites
Who is Constantine?
* In 313 CE, Roman Emperor Constantine issued the Edict of Milan which declared that Christians were free to worship without interference. Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire.
~Created Ecumenical councils.
~Gathered Bishops in Nicaea to judge Arius.
Who is Martin Luther?
Founded Lutheranism ("Faith Alone")
* An Augustinian monk named Luther disagreed with the idea of indulgences (paying towards reducing a deceased’s time in purgatory)
* Luther presented these criticisms in the 95 Theses, which resulted in his excommunication
* The Pope demanded a retraction, & was met with the force of Luther, Prince Frederick (who translated the Bible into German) & by 1526, several other German Princes.
* In 1529 war broke out. Luther died in 1546 leaving a legacy of freedom from tyrannical authorities or law. This conflict split the Western Church into Catholics & Protestants of which he is the founder.
Who is Loyola?
Founder of one of the most effective groups countering reformers: The Jesuits
Who is Henry VIII?
* Under King Henry VII’s reign, England went from a Catholic country under the Pope’s authority to a Protestant nation with the King as the head of the church.
* As a result of the Pope’s reluctance to annul King Henry VII’s marriage to Catherine of Aragon, King Henry declared himself head of the church & broke ties with Rome.
* He ignored the authority of the Pope & supported the destruction of monasteries yet did not change the Catholic doctrine or mass.
* The Act of Supremacy: King Henry had his workers sign this Act denouncing Catholicism & stating that he was the head of the Anglican Church.
Who is Thomas More?
Was the friend and advisor of King Henry. He refused to sign the Act and died as a martyr of Catholicism by Henry’s hands.
Who is Arius?
the man who believed Jesus was God’s highest creature, not God himself
What is the Pentecost?
Christian festival commemorating the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the apostles to help them spread the Christian faith.
What is schism?
a separation, but not a full break, of two churches on the basis of a dispute over beliefs or practices
What are the Apostles?
followers of Jesus who were sent forth to bring the Gospel to others; the 12 especially chosen among the disciples by Jesus
What is Atheism?
of Greek origin meaning “no God”; a person who does not believe in God, or in any other higher power or reality
What is a disciple?
literally, a student; here it means a follower of Jesus
What is an Evangelist?
a writer of a Gospel of the New Testament
What is Heresy?
a belief or practice that is contrary to the doctrine
What is an Icon?
a sacred image (in a painting or a carving, for example) of Christ & the saints used in devotion & other religion rituals
What is Iconoclasm?
breaking icons (images used in religious worship)
word meaning “those who believe correctly” or “those who glorify God correctly”; Orthodox Christians’ origins coincide with the origin of Christianity
What is transubstantiation?
changing of bread & wine into the body & blood of Christ during Holy Communion
What is the Trinity?
Christian belief of the 3 persons in God; the Father, the son (Jesus Christ), & the Holy Spirit
What are Indulgences?
prayers or actions in the Roman Catholic Church that are believed to free the individual from spending a specified period of time in purgatory
What is the Filioque Clause?
Latin word meaning “& the son” added to the Nicene Creed by the Western/Roman, Church
What is Papal Infallibility?
Roman Catholic belief that the pope cannot err when speaking on matters of faith & morals in his role as head of the Church
Explain: The Crusades
an attempt to ward off the Muslim armies that threatened the Christian Bryzanite Empire & to allow Christians to make the pilgrimage to Jerusalem.
What are two things that bind all Christians?
1. Confession of Jesus Christ
What are two sacraments that all Christians practice?
Explain the Ecumenical Movement
the movement toward unity among the Christian churches; “ecumenism” comes from the Greek word meaning “the whole inhabited world” & reflects Jesus’s desire that his word be spread to the whole of the human race
* Ecumenism is the movement toward unity among churches
* 20th century: churches of the Protestant Reformation realized that divisions within Christianity were hurting the mission of the church
* 1910: the World Missionary Conference in Edinburgh, Scotland, started the modern ecumenical movement
* 1948: the World Council of Churches was formed
* Almost all Christian churches agreed that divisions went against the desire for unity among his followers
* At first, the Catholic Church refused to participate in the World Council of Churches (WCC).
* 1965: during the Second World War, the Church passed a Decree on Ecumenism & committed the Catholic Church to dialogue with other Christians
* Now, the Catholic Church participates in all the WCCs commissions, even though it is not a full member of the WCC
Explain how we went from religious intolerance to tolerance
* During the Thirty Years’ War between Catholics & Protestants (1618-1648), nearly one-third of the population of the German states died
Religious Tolerance Begins
* The idea of religious tolerance started to become popular with the Enlightenment
* The tolerance was twofold:
o Tolerance between religions &,
o Tolerance by governments for the different religions practiced in their countries
* The Enlightenment also led to opposition toward religion in general
* Catholic & Protestant conflict settled down as nations began to develop laws of religious tolerance
* Not until the Second Vatican Council (1962-1965) did official dialogue & openness between Catholics & Protestants become a reality