When are SQ fluids contraindicated?
If animals require large replacement volumes, hypothermic patients, or severely dehydrated
Where are SQ fluids administered?
Where loose connective tissue is abundant
SQ space over dorsal neck, and cranial trunk
What are the benefits of warming SQ fluids before administration?
Encourages absorption and benefits hypothermic patients
Dextrose solutions >2.5% should never be given SQ. Why?
Causes skin sloughing or abscesses
In what cases is intravenous fluid therapy the most preferable route?
When treating critically ill, severely dehydrated, hypovolemic or patients experiencing metabolic disorders
What route of fluid therapy is the most rapidly effective on blood volume?
What complications are associated with intravenous fluid therapy?
What bones are used for intraosseous fluid therapy?
Femur, humerous, wing of ileum
What fluid therapy route is excellent for access to peripheral circulation?
Intraosseous (absorption equivalent to intravenous)
What route of fluid therapy is commonly used in guinea pigs, rodents, and hamsters?
Intraperitoneal has the same absorption rate of what other route?
What affects rate of fluid administration?
Rate of fluid loss
Cardiac and renal function
Fluid type and administration
Daily fluid requirements =
% dehydration X body weight (kg) X 10
What is the best way to evaluate the fluid status of a patient?
Central venous pressure
Monitoring reduces chance of volume overload
What measures central venous pressure?
What are the signs to fluid overload?
Chemosis (swelling of conjunctiva)
If fluid overload is suspected what should be monitored?
Lungs for pulmonary edema
How does the veterinarian know how much fluid to give an animal?
Volume needed to rehydrate the patient + volume needed for maitenance + volume needed to correct ongoing losses
What is the approximate maintenance fluid requirement?
When measuring contemporary (on going losses) what is being observed and how should it be measured?
Volume lost in diarrhea, or vomitus in ml's
Double visual estimate