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Flashcards in Toxicology Deck (42)
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1

What is the dilution dose for corrosive ingestion?

1-3 ml/lb milk or water

2

When is induced emesis contraindicated?

In horses, ruminants, rodents, rabbits, and birds

Depressed or comatose patients

Hyperactive patients

or patients that have already vomitted

Also if they have ingested any hydrocarbons

3

What is the dose hydrogen peroxide may be given to induce vomitting?

1 teaspoon per 5 lbs

4

What are some examples of emetic agents?

Hydrogen peroxide

Syrup of Ipecac

Apomorphine hydrochloride (injectable only)

5

How does activated charcoal work?

Absorb chemicals/toxins

6

What indicates the use of activated charcoal?

Organic poisons

Chemicals

Bacterial toxins

7

What contraindicates activated charcoal?

Ingestion of:

P- Pesticides

H- Hydrocarbons

A- Acids

I- Iron

L-Lithium

S-Solvents

8

What are cathartics?

Increase the clearing of intestinal content

Enhance the elimination of activated charcoal absorbed toxicant

9

When are cathartics contraindicated?

In patients that with diarrhea or dehydration

10

What are some common sources of household acids?

Toilet bowl cleaners, drain openers, metal cleaners, antirust compounds, gun cleaners, battery fluids, sanitizers

11

What are some sources of household alkalines?

Drain openers, oven cleaner, bleaches, denture cleaners, cement

12

What pH can cause esophogeal ulcers?

pH 12.5

13

What pH can cause esophogeal perforation?

pH >14

14

What are some signs of essential oil ingestion?

GI and mucous membrane irritation, CNS depression, skin irritation

15

What are some severe signs of cationic detergent ingestion?

Redness of skin, tissue swelling, intense pain, ulceration

Tissue necrosis and inflammation of the mouth, stomach and esophagus

16

What are the first signs of nicotine ingestion? (Usually can be seen within 15 - 45 mins)

Excitation, tachypnea, salivation, emesis, and diarrhea

17

After the initial signs of nicotine ingestion what symptoms can be seen?

Muscle weakness, twitching, depression, shallow respiration, collapse, coma and cardiac arrest

18

Napthalene, an active ingredient in mothballs can cause what?

Heinz bodies and hemolysis

19

Paradichlorobenzene, an active ingredient in mothballs affect what?

Affect liver and CNS

20

Tremorgenic mycotoxins are found on what?

Moldy food

21

What plant species can cause cardiovascular dysfunction?

Rhododendrons/Azaleas

22

When are clinical signs of Rhododendron sp. ingestion seen?

4-12 hours after ingestion

23

Cardiac glycoside containing plants:

Lilly-of-the-valley, Foxglove, oleander

24

Ingestion of one or more seeds has resulted in liver failure and death in dogs

Cycad/Sago Palms

25

Toxin found in Cycad/Sago Palms

Cycasin Toxin

26

What is the toxic portion of Castor beans?

Ricin

27

Calcium Oxalate containing plants

Calla lily, elephant ear, dumb cane, pathos, mother-in-law's tongue

28

Highly toxic insecticide found in fly bait

Methomyl

29

Most obvious sign of fly bait ingestion

Seizures

30

Toxin found in slug and snail bait

Metaldehyde