What are they, what do they do?
Contain large solute particles that do not pass through membrane
These fluids remain in the intravascular compartment
What are they similar to, and what are some examples?
Are very close to extracellular fluids in solute content
Ex. Lactated Ringers- contain Na, Cl, K, and Ca
What are they, what are some examples?
Unlike extracellular fluids in terms of solute content
Ex. 0.9% saline, contains only Na and Cl
Replacement fluids contain solutes that closely resemble...
Replacement fluid content
High sodium and chloride
Lower amounts of potassium and other solutes
Maintenance fluids contain solutes that closely resemble...
Total Body Water
Maintenance fluids content
Lower sodium and chloride
Hemorrhage can result in what?
Hypovolemia (low blood volume)
What must be done to prevent further blood loss from hemorrhaging with fluid therapy?
Aggressive, fast replacement of vascular volume
What is the medical definition of shock?
Condition in which blood pressure is inadquate to deliver oxygen and nutrients to vital organs and tissues
What is the treatment for shock?
Restoring blood volume
Improving tissue perfusion
What are the characteristics of Crystalloid fluid solutions?
May be balanced or unbalanced
Hypo, Hyper, or Isotonic
May be designed for replacement and/or maintenance
*Most commonly used*
Examples of isotonic solutions
Dextrose 5% in water
2.5% Dextrose in 0.45% Saline with KCl added
Examples of Hypertonic solutions
3,4,5, or 7% Saline
LR with 5% Dextrose
Example of Hypertonic solutions
0.9% Saline (normal saline) should not be used in patients suffering heart disease for what reason?
High sodium content can cause heart to stop
Lactated Ringers can not be used in patients receiving blood transfusions. Why?
Due to calcium content- can cause clots
What fluids are given as replacement?
What fluids are given as maintenance?
2.5% Dextose in 0.45% Saline with KCl
When are colloid treatments indicated?
Treatment of shock
Treatment of Hypoproteinemia
What are natural colloids?
What are the synthetic colloids?
What is the additive sodium bicarbonate used to treat?
When administering sodium bicarbonate it is important to administer it how?
VERY slowly, administering too quickly can kill the patient!
What is the additive potassium chloride used to treat?
What are the toxicity signs when administering KCl?
Muscle weakness, arrythmias
What is 50% Dextrose used to treat?
Hypoglycemia in neonatal food animals, foals, and small animals
Ketosis in cattle and pregnancy toxemia in sheep
For patients with severe fluid deficits in need of rapid fluid and electrolyte delivery, what route should NOT be used?
In what situations is oral fluid therapy indicated?
If the GI tract is functioning properly
May supplement with commericially available human electrolyte products
What is the route of choice when small volumes of fluid therapy are needed?