IV Catheterization and Fluids Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in IV Catheterization and Fluids Deck (111)
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61

Colloid fluids

What are they, what do they do?

Contain large solute particles that do not pass through membrane

These fluids remain in the intravascular compartment

 

62

Balanced Fluids

What are they similar to, and what are some examples?

Are very close to extracellular fluids in solute content

Ex. Lactated Ringers- contain Na, Cl, K, and Ca

63

Unbalanced fluids

What are they, what are some examples?

Unlike extracellular fluids in terms of solute content

Ex. 0.9% saline, contains only Na and Cl

64

Replacement fluids contain solutes that closely resemble...

Plasma

65

Replacement fluid content

High sodium and chloride

Lower amounts of potassium and other solutes

66

Maintenance fluids contain solutes that closely resemble...

Total Body Water

67

Maintenance fluids content

Lower sodium and chloride

Higher potassium

68

Hemorrhage can result in what?

Hypovolemia (low blood volume)

Cardiovascular collapse

69

What must be done to prevent further blood loss from hemorrhaging with fluid therapy?

Aggressive, fast replacement of vascular volume

70

What is the medical definition of shock?

Condition in which blood pressure is inadquate to deliver oxygen and nutrients to vital organs and tissues

71

What is the treatment for shock?

Identifiying cause

Restoring blood volume

Improving tissue perfusion

72

What are the characteristics of Crystalloid fluid solutions?

May be balanced or unbalanced

Hypo, Hyper, or Isotonic

May be designed for replacement and/or maintenance

*Most commonly used*

73

Examples of isotonic solutions

0.9% NaCl

Lactated Ringers

Normosol-R

Dextrose 5% in water

2.5% Dextrose in 0.45% Saline with KCl added

74

Examples of Hypertonic solutions

3,4,5, or 7% Saline

50% Dextrose

LR with 5% Dextrose

75

Example of Hypertonic solutions

Normosol-M

76

0.9% Saline (normal saline) should not be used in patients suffering heart disease for what reason?

High sodium content can cause heart to stop

77

Lactated Ringers can not be used in patients receiving blood transfusions. Why?

Due to calcium content- can cause clots

78

What fluids are given as replacement?

Lactated Ringers

Normosol-R

79

What fluids are given as maintenance?

Normosol-M

2.5% Dextose in 0.45% Saline with KCl

80

When are colloid treatments indicated?

Treatment of shock

Treatment of Hypoproteinemia

81

What are natural colloids?

Whole blood

Blood plasma

82

What are the synthetic colloids?

Dextran 40

Dextran 70

Hetastarch

Oxyglobin

83

What is the additive sodium bicarbonate used to treat?

Acidosis

84

When administering sodium bicarbonate it is important to administer it how?

VERY slowly, administering too quickly can kill the patient!

85

What is the additive potassium chloride used to treat?

Hypokalemia

86

What are the toxicity signs when administering KCl?

Muscle weakness, arrythmias

87

What is 50% Dextrose used to treat?

Hypoglycemia in neonatal food animals, foals, and small animals

Ketosis in cattle and pregnancy toxemia in sheep

88

For patients with severe fluid deficits in need of rapid fluid and electrolyte delivery, what route should NOT be used?

Oral

89

In what situations is oral fluid therapy indicated?

If the GI tract is functioning properly

Maintenance needs

May supplement with commericially available human electrolyte products

90

What is the route of choice when small volumes of fluid therapy are needed?

Subcutaneous