Flashcards in Human Development Deck (38)
Describe the 4 aspects of Gender.
Gender is what characterizes a person as male or female.Gender identity is knowledge of one's own gender.Gender roles are the societal or cultural expectations of how males and females shoudl think, act & feel.Gender typing is the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role.
Describe congenital adrenal hyperplasia
A genetic effect where excessive levels of androgens are produced. Does not impact gender identity.
In females. On 2 adrenal glands, more androgens are produced than needed which results in more male features. Grow taller more quickly Grow more hair
Can happen in men which results in the appearance of male features earlier during development
Describe what happens in androgen-insensitive males.
AIS is a condition that results in the partial or complete inability of the cell to respond to androgens. The unresponsiveness of the cell to the presence of androgenic hormones can impair or prevent the masculinization of male genitalia in the developing fetus, as well as the development of malesecondary sexual characteristics at puberty, but does not significantly impair female genital/sexual development. x/y chromosomes that are completely unharmed and uninjured In mild cases, you have slightly underdeveloped genitals but not necessarily visibly so In severe cases, you have an individual who appears female but does have testes
These individuals feels like a girl, and have that identity
Describe a pelvic field defect.
Born with no problems with x\y chromosomes and hormone levels are intact, but genitalia has not formed as it is partially or completely missing.
How is the psychoanalytic theory of gender different from the role-theory of gender.
The role-theory gender differences result from the contrasting roles of men & women which is dicated by society where as psychoanalytic theory of gender attributes gender behavior to same-sex parent, following attraction to opposite-sex parent.
Define Gender Dysphoria
A marked incongruence between one’s experienced/expressed gender and assigned gender.
List the DSM-V signs of Gender Dysphoria
A strong desire to be of the other gender or an insistence that one is the other gender (or some alternative gender different from one’s assigned gender). In boys (assigned gender), a strong preference for cross-dressing or simulating female attire; or in girls (assigned gender), a strong preference for wearing only typical masculine clothing and a strong resistance to the wearing of typical feminine clothing. A strong preference for cross-gender roles in make-believe play or fantasy play. A strong preference for the toys, games, or activities stereotypically used or engaged in by the other gender. A strong preference for playmates of the other gender. In boys (assigned gender), a strong rejection of typically masculine toys, games, and activities and a strong avoidance of rough-and-tumble play In girls (assigned gender), a strong rejection of typically feminine toys, games, and activities. A strong dislike of one’s sexual anatomy. A strong desire for the primary and/or secondary sex characteristics that match one’s experienced gender.
Differentiate between sexual internalization and expression.
Internalization describes how we feel and think about our own sexuality and that of others.Sexuality expression on the other hand is determined by biological and cultural factors.
List causes of adolescent sexual activity
* Most have first experience by age 17 Personal risk factors
* Emotionally unprepared for sexual experiences Drug use, delinquency, school-related problems
* Risky behavior patterns can continue as disorders in emerging adulthood Contextual factors
* SES, Parenting styles, peer factors
* Siblings engaging in early activity
Describe Piaget's Theory of Moral Development
Stage 1: Heteronomous morality (4-7) Children view rules as unchangeable Children don’t grasp the idea that people came up with rules The badness of an act depends on the severity of a consequence
Transition period (7-9)Stage 2: Autonomous morality (10+) Begin to question why rules are made Consider the actions and intentions of others What you do matters depends on how it affects someone else
Immanent justice Punishment is handed out swiftly following a bad act
Describe Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development
LEVEL 1: Preconventional - Right and wrong are determined by punishment & reward Stage 1 - punishment/obedience Whatever leads to punishment is wrong
Stage 2 - rewards
Behave in a way that is rewarded
LEVEL 2: Conventional - Views of others are important. Avoid blame and seek approval Stage 3 - mutual interpersonal expectations Conforming to meet expectations
Stage 4 - social system morality
Acknowledging authority and following rules of order
LEVEL 3: Postconventional - Justice becomes more abstract. Human override obedience to law.
Stage 5: moral vs legal rights Rules must sometimes be broken
Stage 6: universal ethical principles
Evaluating views of all involved when making moral decisions
Describe the use and emphasis of Heinz's Deilemma
Kohlberg used the Heinz dilemma to classify people during moral development.He emphasized moral thought. How do you think about morals vs. actual behavior.
Describe Gilligan's perspective on Moral Development.
Denial of justice perspective States that individuals make moral decisions independently
Argument for care perspective Morality: connectedness with & concern for others Interpersonal relationships are key
Emphasis on gender differences Kohlberg used male responses to establish theory Are gender differences present? (No)
Describe the differences in moral reasoning.
Two approaches include conventional rules and moral reasoning. Conventional Rules are established by social consensus
* Hand raising
* Holding the door open
* Based on SOCIAL ORGANIZATION Moral Reasoning addresses ethical issues and rules of morality
* Based on principles of JUSTICE
Describe Schopenhauer's take on morality.
“Compassion is the basis for morality.” Acts of compassion are not inspired by personal gain, only the interest of another. Egotistic acts are guided by self-interest, desire for pleasure or happiness. We are largely self-serving. Acts of malice are expressly for the purpose of causing damage to others . Disregard for personal gain.
According to Dan Ariely, what alters moral behavior in people.
* Moral reminders
* In-group security
* Separate from seriousness (money vs a pencil)
What is the relationship between time spent with parents and time spent with peers?
* Time spent with parents decreases with age while time spent with peers increases.
* This is due to shared interests, proximity and shared environments
What are the functions of friendship?
Companionship Stimulation Physical support Provide resources and assistance Ego / Emotional support Social comparison Kids like to be similar to other kids Doc Martin’s Reebok’s Intimacy / affection This goes beyond emotional support Things that you do not want to tell your parents but you will tell your best friend
Why are intergenerational relationships important?
Provides great support for adolescence as they have access to wisdom and feel safer in sharing
Which type of friendship is the riskiest?
Mixed-age as younger members tend to act like the older ones.
What differences exist in adult friendships?
In comparing adult friends to childhood friends, adult friendships rely more on preferred similarities: occupational status age, marital satiates income education gender religion ethnicity
Gender Differences Women - more close friends; more intimate; talk more Men - more competitive; engage in activities (outdoors) More cross-gender friendships; still prefer same-gender
Describe friendships in late adulthood
Choose close friends over new friendsContent with small, close social networkResearch results: Depression linked to social contacts limited to family Close ties with old friends extends life span Unwed older adults with friend-focused network healthier than unwedded restricted to family, little friend contact
What elements comprise pro-social behavior.
Altruism - Doing something expressly for someone else
* Equality - Not putting yourself above others or others below you
* Merit - Appreciating the rewards that come with good behavior
List components of antisocial behavior.
People who exhibit anti social behavior have difficult forming and maintaining friendships.Conduct disorder Impulsive Overactive Aggressive Delinquent
Aggression Physical Social
Peer pressure is not always bad, sometimes you want children to succumb to peer pressure in order to be successful. In a classroom, a teacher may utilize peer pressure to reinforce prosocial behavior.
Describe patterns of play in childhood.
Sensorimotor - infant behavior for exploring Practice - repetition for physical and mental mastery Pretense/symoblic - “golden age” of make-believe Social - interaction with peers, sharing and cooperating Constructive - self-regulated creation of something, focus and concentration Games - engaged in for pleasure, have rules to follow
Describe play patterns during adolescence.
Leisure: Free time to pursue activities and interests of their choosing
U.S. adolescents spend more time than more than those in other industrialized countries Most time in unstructured leisure activities Most time in voluntary structured activities
Critics: too much unstructured leisure activity - TV and “hanging out” Why the shift from childhood - adolescence? Kids are supposed to play and learn and have fun In adulthood, expectation is to be productive Adolescents are in between these two expectations
Play can be changed to incorporate elements of productivity
Describer patterns of play in adulthood.
Leisure can include: reading hobbies sports
Many adults do not engage in activities.Mid-life changes may produce expanded opportunities for leisure.Adults at midlife need to begin preparing psychologically for retirement.Vacations extend life span, lowers risk of heart disease.
What issues must be considered in relation to working mothers?
* Caused by a number of factors but center around leaving children with others Sibling separation Responsiveness If mothers are valued at work this in turn positively impacts their ability to parent at home