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Flashcards in Assessment II Deck (35)
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1

Define a construct

Terms researchers invent to describe, organize and assign meaning ot phenomena relevant to a domain of research.

2

Define Measure

A quantified record, such as an item response, that serves as an empirical representation of a construct. A measure does not define a construct, but rather is one of various possible indicators of the construct, all of which are considered fallible.

3

Define Content Validity

The degree to which item content is relevant to and representative of the targeted construct. NOTE: Adequate content validity requires attention to both the breadth and depth of measured constructs.

4

Define Construct Validity

The extent to which a scales measures or correlates with the theorized psychological scientific construct that it purports to measure. Convergent and discriminant validity are subtypes.

5

Define Convergent validity

The degree to which two measures of constructs that theoretically should be related, are in fact related.

6

Define Discriminant Validity

The degree to which scores on a test do not correlate with scores from other tests that measure different constructs.

7

Describe the structure of the PAI


* 22 Scales 4 domains
* Validity
* Clinical
* Treatment
* Interpersonal
* 10 scales are comprised of subscales

8

What factors contribute to someone being eligible to take a PAI?


* Reading comprehension >= 4th grade level
* Borderline IQ or higher
* NOT compromised by alcohol, drugs, neurological disorder, or psychosis
* Able to focus adequately for at least an hour
* Sufficient English fluency

9

What does the profile "skyline" indicate?

The skyline indicates a score that would be 2 SDs above the mean in a combined inpatient/outpatient clinical normative sample

10

List the steps taken in order to interpret a PAI


* Ensure that the measure is valid
* Interpretation of individual scales
* Interpret profile configurations & code types

11

List the PAI's Validity Scales


* ICN - Inconsistency 
* INF - Infrequency
* NIM - Negative Impression Management
* PIM - Positive Impression Management

12

Describe the SOM scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?

Somatic Complaints
* SOM-C: Conversion - unusual medical symptoms
* SOM-S: Somatization - diffuse health-related complaints
* SOM-H: Health concerns - Preoccupation with physical health 

13

Describe the ANX scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?

Anxiety
* ANX-C: Cognitive - cognitive sxs (rumination, worry)
* ANX-A: Affective - affective sxs (tension, difficulty relaxing)
* ANX-P: Physiological - Physical sxs (sweating, + heart rate)

14

Describe the ARD scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?

Anxiety Related Disorders
* ARD-O: OCD and personality features
* ARD-P: Phobias - fearfulness, particularly social
* ARD-T: Trauma - traumatic history

15

Describe the DEP scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?

Depression
* DEP-C: Worthlessness, hopelessness 
* DEP-A: Affective - sadness, lack of interest
* DEP-P: Physiological - Fatigue, sleep, eating

16

Describe the MAN scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?

Mania
* MAN-A: Activity level - energy, over-extension 
* MAN-G: Grandiosity - + sense of self worth
* MAN-I: Irritability - Impatience, low frustration tolerance

17

Describe the PAR scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?

Paranoia
* PAR-H: Hypervigilance - suspiciousness 
* PAR-P: Persecution - believes others actively preventing one's success
* PAR-R: Resentment - Tendency to hold grudges/externalize blame

18

Describe the SCZ scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?

Schizophrenia
* SCZ-P: Psychotic Experiences - psychotic sxs, unusual perceptions
* SCZ-S: Social Detachment - social isolation/detachment
* SCZ-T: Thought Disorder - concentration difficulties, disorganized thinking

19

Describe the BORscale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?

Borderline Features
* BOR-A: Affective Instability - poor mood regulation
* BOR-I: Identity problems - Feeling empty, uncertain of one's place in life
* BOR-S: Self harm - Impulsivity, self-harm 

20

Describe the ANT scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?

Antisocial Features
* ANT-A: Antisocial behaviors - rule breaking
* ANT-E: Egocentricity - exploitive, unempathic
* ANT-S: Stimulus Seeking - low boredom tolerance

21

Describe the AGG scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?

Aggression
* AGG-A: Aggressive Attitude - belief that violence can be used for personal gain
* AGG-V: Verbal Aggression - assertiveness & verbal abusiveness
* AGG-P: Physical Aggression - tendency to be physically aggressive

22

What supplemental indicators exist on the PAI and what purpose do they serve?

Defensiveness Index
* Minimization of problems to deceive self or others Cashel Discriminant Function
* Intentional defensive dissimulation Malingering Index
* Pessimism or malingering Rogers Discriminant Function
* Malingering
*  
 

23

Describe some of the PAI's limitations

PAI is a self report measure
* Questions are answered based on responder's perception, which can be flawed
* Test relies on responder honesty
* Patients must understand questions
PAI does not identify/measure all traits/behaviors related to a diagnosis
* Eating disorder
* Developmental disorder
* Cognitive disorder/dementia
* V Codes

24

Define Adaptive Functioning

The effectiveness of the individual in coping with social and natural demands  of his/her environment.

25

List and describe the domains of Adaptive Functioning according to the DSM5.

Conceptual
* language
* problem solving
* academic abilities Social
* awareness of and effective communication with others Practical
* home living
* health & safety
* self-magement
* school/job activities

26

Is ADHD a learning disability?

No, it's one kind of developmental disorder that causes problems in the learning environment.

27

List the diagnostic criteria for ADHD.

6 or more symptoms of inattention or hyperactivity-impulsivity
* 5 symptoms if individual is at least 17 
* persisting for at least 6 months
* present before the age of 12
* observed in 2 or more settings
* impair or reduce functioning

28

List the ppotential hyperactivity symptoms required for a diagnosis of ADHD.


* Fidgetiness
* Can't stay in a chair
* Runs around or climbs
* Gets loud
* Driven by a motor
* Chatterbox
*  

29

List the ppotential inattentive symptoms required for a diagnosis of ADHD.


* Poor focused attention; careless mistakes
* Poor sustained attention
* Doesn't listen
* Doesn't finish tasks
* Disorganized 
* Avoids tasks requiring effort
* Loses things
* Easily distracted
* Forgetful

30

What is the prevalence of ADHD according to the DSM?


* 3 to 7% in school age population
* 2.5% in adults (DSM 5)
* 2 males : 1 female