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Flashcards in Assessment II Deck (35)
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Define a construct

Terms researchers invent to describe, organize and assign meaning ot phenomena relevant to a domain of research.


Define Measure

A quantified record, such as an item response, that serves as an empirical representation of a construct. A measure does not define a construct, but rather is one of various possible indicators of the construct, all of which are considered fallible.


Define Content Validity

The degree to which item content is relevant to and representative of the targeted construct. NOTE: Adequate content validity requires attention to both the breadth and depth of measured constructs.


Define Construct Validity

The extent to which a scales measures or correlates with the theorized psychological scientific construct that it purports to measure. Convergent and discriminant validity are subtypes.


Define Convergent validity

The degree to which two measures of constructs that theoretically should be related, are in fact related.


Define Discriminant Validity

The degree to which scores on a test do not correlate with scores from other tests that measure different constructs.


Describe the structure of the PAI

* 22 Scales 4 domains
* Validity
* Clinical
* Treatment
* Interpersonal
* 10 scales are comprised of subscales


What factors contribute to someone being eligible to take a PAI?

* Reading comprehension >= 4th grade level
* Borderline IQ or higher
* NOT compromised by alcohol, drugs, neurological disorder, or psychosis
* Able to focus adequately for at least an hour
* Sufficient English fluency


What does the profile "skyline" indicate?

The skyline indicates a score that would be 2 SDs above the mean in a combined inpatient/outpatient clinical normative sample


List the steps taken in order to interpret a PAI

* Ensure that the measure is valid
* Interpretation of individual scales
* Interpret profile configurations & code types


List the PAI's Validity Scales

* ICN - Inconsistency 
* INF - Infrequency
* NIM - Negative Impression Management
* PIM - Positive Impression Management


Describe the SOM scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?

Somatic Complaints
* SOM-C: Conversion - unusual medical symptoms
* SOM-S: Somatization - diffuse health-related complaints
* SOM-H: Health concerns - Preoccupation with physical health 


Describe the ANX scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?

* ANX-C: Cognitive - cognitive sxs (rumination, worry)
* ANX-A: Affective - affective sxs (tension, difficulty relaxing)
* ANX-P: Physiological - Physical sxs (sweating, + heart rate)


Describe the ARD scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?

Anxiety Related Disorders
* ARD-O: OCD and personality features
* ARD-P: Phobias - fearfulness, particularly social
* ARD-T: Trauma - traumatic history


Describe the DEP scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?

* DEP-C: Worthlessness, hopelessness 
* DEP-A: Affective - sadness, lack of interest
* DEP-P: Physiological - Fatigue, sleep, eating


Describe the MAN scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?

* MAN-A: Activity level - energy, over-extension 
* MAN-G: Grandiosity - + sense of self worth
* MAN-I: Irritability - Impatience, low frustration tolerance


Describe the PAR scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?

* PAR-H: Hypervigilance - suspiciousness 
* PAR-P: Persecution - believes others actively preventing one's success
* PAR-R: Resentment - Tendency to hold grudges/externalize blame


Describe the SCZ scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?

* SCZ-P: Psychotic Experiences - psychotic sxs, unusual perceptions
* SCZ-S: Social Detachment - social isolation/detachment
* SCZ-T: Thought Disorder - concentration difficulties, disorganized thinking


Describe the BORscale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?

Borderline Features
* BOR-A: Affective Instability - poor mood regulation
* BOR-I: Identity problems - Feeling empty, uncertain of one's place in life
* BOR-S: Self harm - Impulsivity, self-harm 


Describe the ANT scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?

Antisocial Features
* ANT-A: Antisocial behaviors - rule breaking
* ANT-E: Egocentricity - exploitive, unempathic
* ANT-S: Stimulus Seeking - low boredom tolerance


Describe the AGG scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?

* AGG-A: Aggressive Attitude - belief that violence can be used for personal gain
* AGG-V: Verbal Aggression - assertiveness & verbal abusiveness
* AGG-P: Physical Aggression - tendency to be physically aggressive


What supplemental indicators exist on the PAI and what purpose do they serve?

Defensiveness Index
* Minimization of problems to deceive self or others Cashel Discriminant Function
* Intentional defensive dissimulation Malingering Index
* Pessimism or malingering Rogers Discriminant Function
* Malingering


Describe some of the PAI's limitations

PAI is a self report measure
* Questions are answered based on responder's perception, which can be flawed
* Test relies on responder honesty
* Patients must understand questions
PAI does not identify/measure all traits/behaviors related to a diagnosis
* Eating disorder
* Developmental disorder
* Cognitive disorder/dementia
* V Codes


Define Adaptive Functioning

The effectiveness of the individual in coping with social and natural demands  of his/her environment.


List and describe the domains of Adaptive Functioning according to the DSM5.

* language
* problem solving
* academic abilities Social
* awareness of and effective communication with others Practical
* home living
* health & safety
* self-magement
* school/job activities


Is ADHD a learning disability?

No, it's one kind of developmental disorder that causes problems in the learning environment.


List the diagnostic criteria for ADHD.

6 or more symptoms of inattention or hyperactivity-impulsivity
* 5 symptoms if individual is at least 17 
* persisting for at least 6 months
* present before the age of 12
* observed in 2 or more settings
* impair or reduce functioning


List the ppotential hyperactivity symptoms required for a diagnosis of ADHD.

* Fidgetiness
* Can't stay in a chair
* Runs around or climbs
* Gets loud
* Driven by a motor
* Chatterbox


List the ppotential inattentive symptoms required for a diagnosis of ADHD.

* Poor focused attention; careless mistakes
* Poor sustained attention
* Doesn't listen
* Doesn't finish tasks
* Disorganized 
* Avoids tasks requiring effort
* Loses things
* Easily distracted
* Forgetful


What is the prevalence of ADHD according to the DSM?

* 3 to 7% in school age population
* 2.5% in adults (DSM 5)
* 2 males : 1 female