Flashcards in Assessment II Deck (35)
Define a construct
Terms researchers invent to describe, organize and assign meaning ot phenomena relevant to a domain of research.
A quantified record, such as an item response, that serves as an empirical representation of a construct. A measure does not define a construct, but rather is one of various possible indicators of the construct, all of which are considered fallible.
Define Content Validity
The degree to which item content is relevant to and representative of the targeted construct. NOTE: Adequate content validity requires attention to both the breadth and depth of measured constructs.
Define Construct Validity
The extent to which a scales measures or correlates with the theorized psychological scientific construct that it purports to measure. Convergent and discriminant validity are subtypes.
Define Convergent validity
The degree to which two measures of constructs that theoretically should be related, are in fact related.
Define Discriminant Validity
The degree to which scores on a test do not correlate with scores from other tests that measure different constructs.
Describe the structure of the PAI
* 22 Scales 4 domains
* 10 scales are comprised of subscales
What factors contribute to someone being eligible to take a PAI?
* Reading comprehension >= 4th grade level
* Borderline IQ or higher
* NOT compromised by alcohol, drugs, neurological disorder, or psychosis
* Able to focus adequately for at least an hour
* Sufficient English fluency
What does the profile "skyline" indicate?
The skyline indicates a score that would be 2 SDs above the mean in a combined inpatient/outpatient clinical normative sample
List the steps taken in order to interpret a PAI
* Ensure that the measure is valid
* Interpretation of individual scales
* Interpret profile configurations & code types
List the PAI's Validity Scales
* ICN - Inconsistency
* INF - Infrequency
* NIM - Negative Impression Management
* PIM - Positive Impression Management
Describe the SOM scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?
* SOM-C: Conversion - unusual medical symptoms
* SOM-S: Somatization - diffuse health-related complaints
* SOM-H: Health concerns - Preoccupation with physical health
Describe the ANX scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?
* ANX-C: Cognitive - cognitive sxs (rumination, worry)
* ANX-A: Affective - affective sxs (tension, difficulty relaxing)
* ANX-P: Physiological - Physical sxs (sweating, + heart rate)
Describe the ARD scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?
Anxiety Related Disorders
* ARD-O: OCD and personality features
* ARD-P: Phobias - fearfulness, particularly social
* ARD-T: Trauma - traumatic history
Describe the DEP scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?
* DEP-C: Worthlessness, hopelessness
* DEP-A: Affective - sadness, lack of interest
* DEP-P: Physiological - Fatigue, sleep, eating
Describe the MAN scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?
* MAN-A: Activity level - energy, over-extension
* MAN-G: Grandiosity - + sense of self worth
* MAN-I: Irritability - Impatience, low frustration tolerance
Describe the PAR scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?
* PAR-H: Hypervigilance - suspiciousness
* PAR-P: Persecution - believes others actively preventing one's success
* PAR-R: Resentment - Tendency to hold grudges/externalize blame
Describe the SCZ scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?
* SCZ-P: Psychotic Experiences - psychotic sxs, unusual perceptions
* SCZ-S: Social Detachment - social isolation/detachment
* SCZ-T: Thought Disorder - concentration difficulties, disorganized thinking
Describe the BORscale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?
* BOR-A: Affective Instability - poor mood regulation
* BOR-I: Identity problems - Feeling empty, uncertain of one's place in life
* BOR-S: Self harm - Impulsivity, self-harm
Describe the ANT scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?
* ANT-A: Antisocial behaviors - rule breaking
* ANT-E: Egocentricity - exploitive, unempathic
* ANT-S: Stimulus Seeking - low boredom tolerance
Describe the AGG scale on the PAI. Does it have subscales?
* AGG-A: Aggressive Attitude - belief that violence can be used for personal gain
* AGG-V: Verbal Aggression - assertiveness & verbal abusiveness
* AGG-P: Physical Aggression - tendency to be physically aggressive
What supplemental indicators exist on the PAI and what purpose do they serve?
* Minimization of problems to deceive self or others Cashel Discriminant Function
* Intentional defensive dissimulation Malingering Index
* Pessimism or malingering Rogers Discriminant Function
Describe some of the PAI's limitations
PAI is a self report measure
* Questions are answered based on responder's perception, which can be flawed
* Test relies on responder honesty
* Patients must understand questions
PAI does not identify/measure all traits/behaviors related to a diagnosis
* Eating disorder
* Developmental disorder
* Cognitive disorder/dementia
* V Codes
Define Adaptive Functioning
The effectiveness of the individual in coping with social and natural demands of his/her environment.
List and describe the domains of Adaptive Functioning according to the DSM5.
* problem solving
* academic abilities Social
* awareness of and effective communication with others Practical
* home living
* health & safety
* school/job activities
Is ADHD a learning disability?
No, it's one kind of developmental disorder that causes problems in the learning environment.
List the diagnostic criteria for ADHD.
6 or more symptoms of inattention or hyperactivity-impulsivity
* 5 symptoms if individual is at least 17
* persisting for at least 6 months
* present before the age of 12
* observed in 2 or more settings
* impair or reduce functioning
List the ppotential hyperactivity symptoms required for a diagnosis of ADHD.
* Can't stay in a chair
* Runs around or climbs
* Gets loud
* Driven by a motor
List the ppotential inattentive symptoms required for a diagnosis of ADHD.
* Poor focused attention; careless mistakes
* Poor sustained attention
* Doesn't listen
* Doesn't finish tasks
* Avoids tasks requiring effort
* Loses things
* Easily distracted