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Flashcards in Assessment II part II Deck (69)
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MMPI Dates

MMPI developed in 1930's ; MMPI-2 debuted in 1989


MMPI Clinical Scales 1, 2, 3

1. Hypochondriasis - Hs2. Depression - D3. Hysteria - Hy


MMPI Clinical Scales 4, 5, 6

4. Psychopathic Deviate - Pd5. Masculinity-Femininity - Mf6. Paranoia - Pa


MMPI Clinical Scales 7, 8, 9, 0

7. Psychasthenia - Pt8. Schizophrenia - Sc9. Mania - Ma0. Social Introversion - Si


Requirements for MMPI Test-Taker

- Adequate vision/hearing/hand use- Adequate stamina for 1-2 hour test- Reading comp. of at least 6th grade, English proficiency (recommended 8th grade education)- Borderline or higher IQ- No drugs/alcohol/neuro/psychosis affecting cognitionalso:- Informed consent- Rapport built


Regular and short form # of questions

567 regular, 370 short form (client can stop at 370 for fatigue as well and still have valid validity/clinical scales, but not content scales)


Validity Scales #1: Traditional

? Cannot sayL Lie (15 items)F Infrequency (60 items)K Correction (30 items)


Validity Scales #2: MMPI-2

VRIN Variable Response Inconsistency Scale (49 items)TRIN True Response Inconsistency Scale (23 items)FB F-Back (40 items)F(p) Infrequency-Psychopathology S Superlative


Purpose of Validity Scales

- Determine test-taking attitude- Correlated with personality traits/behaviors; can enrichinterpretation- Validity determination should not be made on basis of one score/index


Cannot Say Scale (?)

- Number of Unscorable Items because Individual did not answer or answered both T and F- Invalid if ? > 30- Check to see if patients left items blank or answered T+F.Go back and re-answer if possible- Always examine omitted item content


Variable Response Inconsistency Scale (VRIN)

- 49 pairs of items- Detect inconsistent or contradictory responding- Either similar or different item groups. Similar = inconsistent if one T, one F Different = inconsistent if both T or both F- High scores = difficulty in understanding OR lack of cooperation- VRIN complements L, F, and K interpretation High F, High VRIN = carelessness/confusion High F, Low VRIN = psychopathology or faking bad


True Response Inconsistency Scale (TRIN)

- 23 pairs of items [like chromosomes]- Detects inconsistent or contradictory responding - Only contains opposite content pairs (e.g. "I am happy" and "I am sad" both marked as T)- High TRIN ( >13 ) = indiscriminate marking of items as true Low TRIN (


Infrequency (F)

- 60 items; 90% of standard normal group resp. in the same direction on these items, so deviation is unusual- Detects tendency to respond unusually; the main theme is psychoticism- Normal controls score under 55T (Raw = 6)- High F is among most sensitive scales indicating severity of maladjustment. Elevated F = poor comprehension, random responding, severe psychosis, or malingering


F-Back Scale (FB)

- 40 items. Same 90% agreement as F scale.- Functions like F but later in the test (After #281, most items between #300-#567)-Theme is acute distress and depression


Infrequency-Psychopathology Scale -- F(p)

- Designed to understand F scale elevation, which could be poor comprehension, random response, and fake/real psychopathology- Items were endorsed by


Lie Scale (L)

- Endorsement of culturally-laudable but rare attitudes/practices. Tryin' to look good- 15 Items- Low: acknowledging faults. Typical of more sophisticated people- High: Rigid, concrete thinker. Likely unsophisticated -- obvious attempt to look good


K Scale (K Correction Scale)

- Measures defensiveness, but less lofty than L; about daily things and coping- 30 items- High: able to manage stressors, competent. Found with vocational achievement and education (higher, not elevated scores show this) - However, High K + emotional problems = lack of insight, dogmatic, controlling - Low: overwhelmed by stressors and unable to cope


Superlative Self-Presentation Scale (S)

- Measures: belief in goodness, serenity, contentment, patience, denial of anger or moral flaws- Correlates with K scale- High scorers might be relaxed, un-moody, "chill"- Functioning must be looked at. If S+K are high and patient functions, may reflect ego strength. If not, could be faking good


Validity Indices: F - FB

- If FB > F by 6 or more = Invalid back half and therefore invalid test- Could reflect fatigue or other problems in second half of test


Validity Indices: F - K Index

- Dissimulation Index: one of the originals. Did the individual attempt to exaggerate psychopathology?-F-K > 12 (women) or 17 (men) = "fake bad"-F-K


Scale 1 - Hypochondriasis (Hs)

- Somatic/Physical Issues Mild elev. --> actual problems High elev. --> vague, bizarre somatic


Scale 2 - Depression (D)

- Distress/Dysphoria Mild elev. --> distress, dissatisfaction, mild depression High elev. --> clinical depression


Scale 3 - Hysteria (Hy)

- Denial + Physical symptoms Mild elev. --> medical patients w/ mild tendency to avoid feelings; express emotions through ailments High elev. --> denial of emotional problems; tendency to express feelings through symptoms more intense; lack of insight; conforming, naive, immature psychologically


Scale 4 - Psychopathic Deviate (Pd)

- Rebelliousness, Antisocial behavior Mild elev. --> rebellion that is socially acceptable; dislike of authority High elev. --> tendency for AS/Criminal behavior; serious disregard for authority; angry and impulsive


Scale 5 - Masculinity-Femininity (Mf)

- Elevations = opposite-sex ID- Lower scores = traditional gender role ID/BxDoes not determine sexual orientation.


Scale 6 - Paranoia (Pa)

- Mild elevations = suspicion, rationalization, external blame- Higher elevations = frank paranoia; hostility; persecutory anxiety


Scale 7 - Psychasthenia (Pt)

- Mild elevations = obsessions, gen. anxiety, self-doubt- Higher elevations = anxiety disorder


Scale 8 - Schizophrenia (Sc)

- Mild elevations = bizarre experiences, social alienation, severe stress reaction- High scores (>75) may suggest: psychosis, head injury, schizoid personality, acute distress, substance abuse, cry for help


Scale 9 - Hypomania (Ma)

- Mild elevation = distractible, high energy, occasional grandiosity, suspiciousness, irritability- High elevations = hypomania to mania symptoms (expansive, elated, euphoric)Consider activity level.


Scale 0 - Social Introversion (Si)

- T