Flashcards in Hinduism Deck (80)
What are the revealed scriptures?
~the oldest Hindu scriptures are the Vedas
~they were written by and for Brahmins
-verses or liturgical formulas
-prose that explains the meaning of the Liturgy
-explanations meant only for the most learned practitioners
What are the Traditional Scriptures?
~includes epic poems and popular stories explaining etiquette
~most people aren't concerned about the historical accuracy
~many are stories of Hindu characters who are role models of dharma living
What are the Laws of Manu?
~govern actions and virtues
~contains important instructions for living according to the caste and acting according to duty
~prominent themes in the Laws of Manu are the importance of patience, discipline, truthfulness, knowledge and living according to the 4 stages of life
~"a man becomes a stationary object as a result of the faults that are the effects of past actions of the body, a bird or wild animal from those of speech, and a member of one of the lower castes from those of mine-and-heart."
What are the three yogas or paths of liberation?
~Hindus turn to Krishna from the Bhagavad Gita to learn how to achieve the ultimate goal of Moksha or liberation from the eternal cycle of rebirth
~In the Bhagavad Gita, krishna describes three yogas that lead to liberation: Knowledge, Devotion, and Action
What is the Path of Knowledge?
~this path stresses the quest for spiritual knowledge and truth
~One goal is to understand that Atman and Brahman are one
~Because the Maya of the world is powerful, Hindus train their minds through meditation (concentrating and focusing the mind to control one's thoughts) to see the world as it truly is
~Meditation allows Hindus to go beyond the conscious self and detach from the world of illusions so they can then see the true nature of Atman
What are the two types of Meditation?
1. Using a Mantra--a word, phrase, or sound that is repeated
2. Using a Madala- a symbolic circle diagram that represents the universe or the self
What is the Path of Devotion?
~In this path, Hindus chose a particular deity and spend their lives worshiping it
~They see their religious identity tied to one preferred deity, but it does not exclude worshiping other deities
What is the Path of Action (Good Works)?
~Also known as Karma yoga
~It involves Hindus doing their dharma, or duty, to the best of their ability
~The duty is different for everyone depending on caste, job, social status, stage of life, etc
~Hindus are not to act in hope of being rewarded with good karma
~They try to act according to what is required by dharma
~this path stresses discipline, ritual action, and moral choices
Explain family life
~traditionally men and women have separate roles in Hindu society
~in urban areas and western countries gender roles are less structured
~One aspect of traditional gender roles, is the idea of a dowry: money or other valuables brought to the marriage by the bride
-many Hindu families pay or require dowries, even though its illegal in India
Explain Arranged Marriage
~Hindu society has a tradition of arranged marriages, especially in India
~Friends, neighbours or paid matchmakers may arrange marriages
~The couple does not date and they are never left alone
What is the main reason for arranged marriages in Hinduism?
~According to traditional Hindu beliefs, parents and others who arrange marriages:
-have a greater wisdom into what it takes to have a successful marriage
-know their children well
-consider education, character, caste, tradition and background
-give the couple a say in what happens if either disagrees with the match the search starts again
-believe that love develops after marriage not before
What are "love marriages"?
They are when you marry for love, like we do in the western society. They are becoming more common, Hindus are also marrying Hindus of other castes and non-Hindus/
What are two Hindu Holidays?
What is Holi?
~It is a spring festival that Hindus usually celebrate sometime in March, on the dull moon day of the last month in the Hindu calender
~The night before, worshipers light a bonfire that signifies the burning of evil
~According to Hindu legend, the young Prahalad was resented by his wicked father for being pious and God-fearing. His evil aunt took Prahalad away and tried to burn him in a fire. Instead she was burned to ashes
~to mark this festival, Hindus of all agesjoin in the merriment of squirting colored water on friends and family
~they distribute and eat sweets and other foods
What is Diwali?
~this festival of lights is Hinduisms most popular celebration
~In India, it is normally celebrated over five days at the end of October or the beginning of November
~In other countries (like Canada), Diwali is observed only one evening but is preceded and followed by days of festivals
~during this festival, Hindus set off fireworks, decorate their houses with lights, give gifts, and wear new clothes to celebrate the triumph of good and knowledge over the dark forces of evil and ignorance
~lavish vegetarian dinners are prepared and a traditional puja is preformed at dusk before the feast begins
~In honours of Lakshmi, the goddess of wealth and fortune and Vishnu, who defeated the demon Naraka
~this festival also commemorates Rama's return to his kingdom after defeating Ravana, the evil king who had abducted his wife Sita in the Ramayana
What is the symbol of Sri Yantra?
~It is commonly used as a visual focal point for meditation
~originated with the Sakti cult (the votaries or worshipers of the Divine Mother)
~the design represents the form of the goddess (it consists of 9 triangles that intersect to form 43 triangles in all. 3 concentric circles surround the triangles and it is framed by a square)
~used to represent spiritual evolution
~triangles stand for the many aspects of God (which merge into one when focused on)
~consciousness of unity appears in the circles
~The entire symbol is seen as a single unit mirroring the Absolute (God)
Namaste means "I bow to you respectfully".
It is both a word and a gesture.
Who is Mahatma Ghandi?
India's most influential political, spiritual, and social leader
What is reincarnation?
The belief that after death a person's soul is reborn in another body (Samsara)