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Depressor and erector muscles in dermis of birds

Depressor muscles:
During hot weather, depressor muscles press the feathers against the body to promote heat loss.
Erector muscles:
When a bird gets cold or does not feel well, it looks "fluffed" because erector muscles in the dermis elevate the body feathers to trap warm air near the body


Remiges & retrices

Both contour feathers typically covering a bird's body and constituting the flight feathers of the wings and tail.
Flight feathers in the wing
Tail feathers


Waterproofing for birds

Most birds possess the uropygial gland, or preen gland, located on the dorsal surface at the upper base of the tail (very large in aquatic bird species, but lacking in some parrots, ostriches, and a few other species).
The act of preening stimulates this gland to secrete an oily, fatty substance.
Using his/her beak the bird spreads this oil throughout its feathers to clean and waterproof them.


Stress bars

Also called fault bars
If a feather is stressed during its growth, even for a few hours, there is an interruption in its blood flow. This develops a fault or stress bar, which is characterized by a weakened area on the feather vane, where the barbs lack barbules.
Most common stressors are poor diet, thyroid disease or infection.


What tells you feathers are still growing?

During feather development, a growing feather is called a blood feather. Blood can be seen in the proximal part of the feather shaft during the entire growth phase.
Injury to a blood feather not only results in bleeding but can prevent a feather from developing normally until molted again.


Number of cervical vertebrae in birds

11 (parakeets) to 25 (swans) - in comparison mammals "only" have 7.


Support for tail feathers in birds

Birds have an average of 12 coccygeal vertebrae. The first few are mobile to allow movement of the tail feathers during flight. The rest are fused into a bony structure called PYGOSTYLE that supports the tail feathers


Bones of pelvic girdle of birds

Each side of pelvic girdle is made up of three bones that join where the leg attaches to the body:
1. ILIUM (relatively broad & fused to synsacrum)
2. & 3. ISCHIUM & PUBIS (thin and long; fused to the anterior ileum and directed rearward, parallel to backbone)
Distal ends of these three bones are NOT fused, providing room for abdomen and facilitating egg laying in hens.


Bones of pectoral girdle of birds

Pectoral or shoulder girdle consists of three pairs of bones
1. Coracoids
2. Scapulas
3. Clavicles (also called wishbones)
Coracoids and scapulas are joined on each side to form a depression called the glenoid cavity or triosseal canal, this is where the wing attaches to the body by forming a joint.
The clavicles keep a bird's shoulders separated by their position.


Flight muscles of birds

*large, superficial
*Origin: Sternum
*Insertion: underside of humerus
*depresses wing (downstroke)
*Origin: Sternum
*Insertion: top of humerus
*elevates wing (upstroke)


Hormone that regulates feather growth

The thyroid gland is an endocrine gland that secretes hormones regulating molting and the migratory urge.


The other name for gizzard

Muscular stomach


Bird poop

Bird poop is called mute (feces and urine together - black & white) or droppings
The consistency of the fecal matter and the color of the urate can give us clues about the health status of a bird. White color is a good sign.


Bird vocalization

Syrinx - the voice box of birds - is an enlargement of the trachea above the lungs & sternum
*contains muscles, air sacs, and vibrating membranes
*complexity of a bird's vocalizations depends on the number of muscles present in syrinx


Scale of reptiles

Beta keratin - rigid, found in scales
Scales are formed by epidermal folds in most reptiles
They vary in size and shape
The epidermis can form unique structures, such as crests, tubercles, spines, and dewlaps


Spectacle in reptiles

Also called brille
Snakes have modified scales (spectacles) that cover the eyes, instead of eyelids


What causes old skin to separate from new skin during ecdysis?

Ecdysis = shedding of skin (occurs with growth or in response to injury)
Exuvia = shed skin
Process is controlled by thyroid gland
Enzyme-containing lymph is secreted between old and new epidermal layers. The skin color dulls & spectacle opacifies. Lymph fluid is resorbed prior to ecdysis; reptile rubs against objects to get rid of old skin. Old skin is shed in pieces or in one large piece.


Why do amphibians not have to drink?

They have "drink patches", which are areas of increased permeability on their ventral surfaces. ]
This way they can absorb water directly from the environment (through the skin)


Where is the heart of a snake located?

Location varies in snakes according to species, but usually the heart is found at the junction of the FIRST AND SECOND THIRDS of the animal's body length.
Snake hearts are fairly mobile facilitating ingestion of large prey.


Three chambers in heart of amphibians

Two atria
One common ventricle


What separates oxygenated from non-oxygenated blood in amphibians?

The single ventricle is separated into three regions:
1. Cavum venosum
2. Cavum arteriosum
3. Cavum pulmonale
Pressure differences of outflow tracts and muscular ridge that partially separates cavum venosum and cavum pulmonale maintain separation of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood


Reptilian & amphibianblood cell analogous to neutrophils in mammals?



Name of terminal portion of lungs in reptiles and amphibians



Lack of vitamin A deficiency in turtles

Results in squamous metaplasia
Results in damage to the cornea and conjunctival tissues due to decreased tear production and bacterial and fungal infection.
Clinical signs: closed, swollen eyelids


What do amphibians/reptiles not have?

Some do not have urinary bladders
Their ureters empty into dorsolateral aspects of the urodeum
The cloaca is the common outflow tract for GI and urogenital tracts (in all reptiles and amphibians) and consists of three chambers:
coprodeum, urodeum, and proctodeum


In which of the reptiles are the vertebrae fused to the shell?

In turtles the vertebral column is fused to the carapace except for the neck and tail.
Carapace = top part of shell
Plastron = bottom part of shell


Vestigial pelvic limbs in reptiles

Some snake species have SPURS
Found on either side of the vent
Used in courtship behavior


Which species has a diffuse attachment of placenta?

Pigs and horses


Which animal has an increased incident of uterine infection postpartum?

Cattle (cow)


What animal has the longest gestation period?

Elephants with roughly 21 months