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How does the anatomy of a muscle or bone differ from its physiology? Which describes appearance and location and which describes function?

The anatomy of a muscle or bone describes its structure and location, whereas the physiology of either describes its function (how does it work?).
So with an anatomical description we will know what they look like, but with a physiological description we will know how they work and what they do.


How might abnormalities in an animal's anatomy or physiology have a negative impact on its health and well-being?

If a bone, for example, is (anatomically) deformed, it would interfere (physiologically) with its proper function. Therefore the animal may be in pain and/or unable to do certain things.


Why must the term rostral be used instead of cranial to describe structure's on a hedgehog's head, but the term caudal works just fine?

Cranial loses its meaning on the head as the cranium is part of the head, so we use rostral to describe top of head to tip of nose. Caudal does not interfere with other terms.


Where is the pleura found? Where is the peritoneum found?

Pleura: thin membrane covering all organs in the thoracic cavity as well as the cavity itself.
Peritoneum: thin membrane covering/lining the abdominal cavity as well as its digestive, urinary and reproductive organs.


What's the difference between the visceral and parietal layers of pleura and peritoneum?

Visceral = covers the organs themselves
Parietal = covers the entire cavity


What's the difference between a cell, a tissue, an organ, and a system in an animal's body?

Cells = basic functional units; smallest subdivisions of body capable of life
Tissue = specialized cells group together to form tissue
Organ = made up of groups of tissue that work together for common purposes
Systems = most complex; groups of organs involved in a common set of activities


What are the four basic tissues that make up an animal's body?



How does the normal anatomy and physiology of cells in an animal's body impact the health of the animal as a whole? How does the normal anatomy and physiology of the animal's body as a whole impact the health of its cells?

If everything is normal, the animal should be able to live a long and happy life.
When the cells are healthy, the anatomy and physiology is normal and vice versa. The whole body is responsible for homeostasis. All systems need to work together.


How do homeostatic mechanisms influence the health of an animal?

The homeostatic mechanisms in the body keep it functioning amid the ever-changing environment. Homeostasis helps maintain a fairly constant internal environment.