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Flashcards in Quiz 1 Deck (16)
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Area dorsal to scapulas


Palmar surface

Ground/Back surface of front limb distal to the carpus


Knee of the horse

Carpal joint (Carpus)
-comparable to the wrist in humans


Hock of the horse

Tarsal joint (Tarsus)
- comparable to the ankle in humans


Distal direction

Away from the body (used for appendages)


Plantar surface

Ground/Back surface of hind limb distal to the tarsus


Apical direction of the mouth

Toward the tip of the root of a tooth


Coronal direction of the mouth

Toward the crown of a tooth


Mesial direction of the mouth

Surface/edge of teeth facing toward the rostral end of mouth or the center (midline), depending on the teeth.


Pseudostratified epithelium

Appear stratified, but are not. Each cell is attached to basement membrane, but not all of them reach the luminal surface. Cells vary in shape and height. Their nuclei occur at different distances from basement membrane. Cells are generally ciliated and are often associated with goblet cells.
Location: Respiratory tract, including nasal cavity, larynx, pharynx, trachea, and bronchi.


Stratified epithelium

- More than one layer of cells
- Thicker and stronger than simple epithelium
- Found in areas of body that are subjected to mechanical and chemical stress


Dense irregular connective tissue

Sheets of collagen that run in different directions or sheets of parallel fibers stacked in alternating directions, able to withstand forces from many different directions.
Location: Dermis of skin, organ capsules (such as kidneys, testes, liver, and spleen), submucosa of digestive tract and the tough capsule of joints.


Smooth muscle

Nonstriated (non striped) involuntary muscle
Stimulated to contract by action of nerves, but cannot be consciously controlled
Each cell has a centrally located nucleus
Found in walls of hollow organs (e.g. intestines, uterus,...)
Moves food through GI tract, moves fluid through vessels, etc.


Skeletal muscle

Striated (striped) voluntary muscle
Consciously controlled to contract
May be a foot or more in length
Cells contain hundreds of nuclei and mitochondria
Attached to bone, occasionally to skin, eyeballs and upper part of the esophagus


Cardiac muscle

Striated (striped) involuntary muscle
Not consciously controlled and has ability to contract even when neural input has been altered
Cells are small and contain only one centrally located nucleus
Cardiac muscle branches to form a complex network
Cells are connected to one another at each end via a special intercellular gap junction called an intercalated disk (only found in cardiac muscle)
Only found in heart (duh!) and pumps blood through the vascular system (again duh!)


Difference between the axon and dendrites of a neuron

Dendrites: Receive impulses from other cells and transport them TO the cell body. They look like multiple short branches surrounding the cell body
Axon: Conducts impulses AWAY from the cell body. It is a single long branch attached to the cell body.