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Flashcards in Quiz 2 Deck (13)
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The socket portion of the ball-and-socket hip joint. It is formed at the junction of the ilium, ischium, and pubic bones of the pelvis. Where the head of the femur joins to form the hip joint.



The second cervical vertebra. It forms the atlantoaxial joint with the first cervical vertebra, the atlas.


Red bone marrow characteristics

*Red bone marrow forms blood cells (hematopoietic tissue)
*Majority of bone marrow found in young animals
*Only a small portion of bone marrow in older animals confined to a few specific locations, such as the ends of long bones and the interiors of the pelvic bones and sternum


Yellow bone marrow characteristics

*Consists primarily of adipose connective tissue
*Most common type of bone marrow in adult animals
*Can revert back to red bone marrow if the body needs an increased amount of blood cells (e.g. animal suffering from chronic, low-level blood loss due to numerous blood-sucking parasites)


Calcaneal tuberosity

The calcaneal tuberosity of the fibular tarsal bone projects upward and backward to form the point of the hock..
It acts as the point of attachment for the tendon of the large gastrocnemius muscle and corresponds to our heel.
***Calcaneus - The large process of the fibular tarsal bone that forms the point of the hock***



The end of a long bone. Each long bone has a proximal and distal epiphysis.


Epiphyseal plate

The growth plate of a long bone. Epiphyseal plates are located at the junction of the proximal and distal epiphyses with the diaphysis. They are areas where long bones increase in length by the process of endochondral bone formation.
When an animal reaches its full size, the epiphyseal plates of its bones completely ossify and the bones cease their growth.



A thin bone located beside the tibia in the lower leg region of the pelvic limb. It is a complete bone in a dog or cat, but only the proximal and distal ends are present in horses and cattle. The fibula does not support any appreciable weight. It mainly acts as a muscle attachment site.
(The small long bone of the "lower leg" in the hind limb.)


Foramen Magnum

The large hole in the occipital bone (external bone of the cranium; caudal-most bone of skull) through which the spinal cord exits the skull.


Greater tubercle

Opposite of the head of the humerus on the proximal end are some large processes called tubercles, where the powerful shoulder muscles attach. The largest one is called the GREATER TUBERCLE.



The most cranial of the three fused bones making up the pelvis (the others are the Ischium and Pubic bone).
It forms the sacroiliac joint with the sacrum.


Os cordis

The visceral bone in the heart of cattle and sheep that helps support the valves of the heart.


Tympanic membrane

The eardrum
The paper-thin, connective tissue membrane that is tightly stretched across the opening of the external ear canal into the middle ear.
It vibrates in response to sound waves.
Vibrations are transmitted across the middle ear cavity to an inner ear structure called the cochlea by the ossicles located in the middle ear.
The ossicles are tiny pairs of ear bones known as the malleus (hammer), incus (anvil) and stapes (stirrup) - starting from outside.