Exam 2, chapter 41/42 Flashcards Preview

Nursing 130 Perioperative > Exam 2, chapter 41/42 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Exam 2, chapter 41/42 Deck (173)
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1

A soft tissue injury produced by blunt force such as a blow, kick or fall, that results in bleeding into soft tissues (ecchymosis)?

Contusion

2

an injury to a musculotendinous unit caused by overuse, overstretching, or excessive stress.

Strain (pulled muscle)

3

A tendon connects?

muscle to bone

4

Ligament connects?

bone to bone

5

Sprain

injury to the ligaments and supporting muscle fibers that surround a joint often caused by a trauma, wrenching, or twisting motion.

6

SXS for strains, contusions and sprains

pain
edema
ecchymosis
abnormal joint motion
tenderness

7

first degree strain

tearing of few muscle fibers
minor edema, tenderness, and muscle spasm
no noticeable loss of function

8

second degree strain

tearing of more muscle fibers
edema
tenderness'
muscle fibers
ecchymosis
notable loss of load bearing strength of the involved extremity.

9

Type of strain that involves complete disruption of at least one musculotendinous unit that involves separation of muscle from muscle, muscle from tendon or tendon from bone.

third degree strain

10

SxS of third degree strain

significant pain
muscle spasm
ecchymosis
edema
loss of function

X-ray to rule out avulsion fracture

11

A break in the continuity of bone caused by direct blows, crushing forces, sudden twisting motions, and extreme muscle contractions?

fracture

12

Tenderness at the distal tibia (inner ankle) or fibula (outer ankle) is associated with an inversion or eversion injury may indicate?

Fracture

13

Tx of contusions, strains, and sprains

Rest to prevent additional injury and promotes healing.
Ice intermittent moist or dry cold packs for 20-30 minutes during the 1st 24-48 hours to produce vasoconstriction (decrease bleeding, edema and discomfort).
Compression: elastic compression banage to control bleeding, reduce edema and provides support.
Elevation controls the swelling.

14

what assessments are important for the nurse to monitor for patients with contusions, strains, and sprains?

Neurovascular status
Circulation (pulses, color, temp, cap refill)
Sensation (awareness of light touch)
Movement (ROM) at the most distal digits.

15

How many weeks of immobilization before exercise are initiated for patient with severe sprains and strains?

1 to 3 weeks

16

depending on the severity of injury (contusions, strains, sprains), progressive passive and active exercises may begin in?

2 to 5 days

17

Spliniting may be used to prevent reinjury in strains and sprains why?

because ligaments and tendons are relatively avascular (bloodless).

18

a partial dislocation of articulating surface.

subluxation

19

What happens when a dislocation is not treated promptly?

Avascular necrosis (AVN)

20

what are some signs and symptoms of a traumatic dislocation?

acute pain
change in contour of the joint
change in lenght of the extremity (shortening of the affected limb)
loss of normal mobility
change in the axis of the dislocated bones.

21

what should the nurse be alert for when there is a right rib fracture 6 through 12?

liver injuries

22

which organ will be injured when there is a left rib fractures 9 through 11?

splenic injuries

23

fractures are described and classified according to?

type
communication or noncommunication with external environment.
anatomic location of fracture on involved bone (humerus, femur, tibia).
stable ( transverse, spiral and greenstick) or unstable (comminuted and oblique)

24

A fracuture that involves a break across the entire cross-section of the bone and is frequently displaced (removed from its normal position)?

complete fracture

25

a fracture that produces several bone fragments?

comminuted fracture

26

A type of fracture caused by compression of vertebrae and are associated frequently with osteoporosis

compression fracture

27

stress fractures

occurs with repeated bone trauma from athletic activities, most frequently involving the tibia and metatarsals.

28

a type of fracture that runs across the bone at a diagonal angle of 45 to 60 degrees?

oblique

29

fractures that do not cause a break in the skin

closed (simple) fractures

30

Types of fractures in which the skin or mucous membrane extends to the factured bone?

open (compound, or complex) fractures