Energy - KQ3 (issues with increasing demand for energy) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Energy - KQ3 (issues with increasing demand for energy) Deck (16)
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1

What are the case studies?

- Three Gorges Dam China (HEP)
- Alaska, USA (oil)
- Mali
- Niger Delta, Nigeria (oil)

2

What are facts about the Three Gorges Dam?

- ON Yangtze River
- Completed in 2009
- 2km wide and nearly 200m high
- 26 generators
- $20 billion estimated cost
- 66km long reservoir

3

What are the social issues with the Three Gorges Dam? (disadvantages)

- 1.3 million people forced to move = homes would be flooded
- Hundreds of new towns and cities built along reservoir = built too quickly and poor conditions
- Slowly moving water in reservoirs = health risks as pollutants collect

4

What are the social issues with the Three Gorges Dam? (advantages)

- Cheap renewable energy for locals
- Government has supported development of new towns = infrastructure development
- Reduced flood risk downstream = reduced death toll and financial losses
- Source of national pride

5

What are economic advantages of the Three Gorges Dam?

- Expensive to build and requires costly on going maintenance = reinforcing valley sides and reservoir dredging
- Agricultural land has been lost = affects local farmer's livelihood and income

6

What are the economic disadvantages of the Three Gorges Dam?

- Can supply 100 billion kilowatts per hour of energy to industries and domestic use
- Creates jobs (eg construction, maintenance, dam material supplies)
- Improved river transport = increased trade from Chongqing (31 million people) due to coast

7

What are the environmental issues with the Three Gorges Dam?

- 800 cultural, architectural historic sites covered by rising water levels
- Slow moving reservoir created by the dam = changed naturally fast flowing river ecosystem and some fish and plants not able to survive
- Agricultural land lost
- Less sediment downstream = river bed erosion increased = distributing ports on the river

8

What are the advantages and disadvantages of the North Slope?

- USA's largest oil field = over 30 years of oil pumping
- 800,000 barrels a day (16% of US production)
- 1/4 of world's untapped oil and gas reserves on Arctic
HOWEVER
- Sourcing is dangerous
- Damage/melting of permafrost due to heat from buildings/pipelines
- Wildlife damaged = seismic exploration disturbs animals, oil spills degrade habitats and gravel extraction from river bed = less fish

9

What are the advantages and disadvantages of Area 1002?

- Possible drilling zone = greater security for supplies
- Can reduce imports of oil and gas = boosts balance of payments and job opportunities
HOWEVER
- Drilling would take away 100,000s of Porcupine Caribou's main calving ground, grazing area and where they escape mosquitos and predators
- Tundra ecosystem is vulnerable

10

What are facts about the Niger Delta, Nigeria?

- In southern Nigeria = where Niger River enters Gulf of Guinea
- Oil exploration began in 1950s
- Region is rich in oil = 2 million barrels a day
- Nigeria = 8th largest oil producer in world
- 23 million people in Niger Delta region
- Poor quality housing
- 60% of population without electricity
- Life expectancy = 43 years -- 12% of babies die before 1
- Low levels of education and health services
- Nigeria = West Africa's biggest producer of petroleum
- 1/3 largest mangrove = high biodiversity

11

What are the social disadvantages of the Niger Delta?

- Local people become ill = flaring of gas creates gas fogs and acid rain = releases carcinogenic particles into environment = cancer and respiratory problems
- Children work at docks = no school
- 60% of people on less than $1 a day
- Not enough of oil profits are used to improve basic infrastructure

12

What are the social advantages of the Niger Delta?

- Children receive income from working on docks
- Oil sold for income
- Employment opportunities = better quality of life
- Low cost, locally refined fuel = provided for homes needing electricity
- Oil provides 80% government's revenues

13

What are the economic advantages of the Niger Delta?

- 2005 = oil production was 131 million tonnes
- 90% of Nigeria's exports by value
- Income
- Earned over $800 billion since in 1960
- Produced over 75% of Nigeria's earnings since 1975

14

What are the economic disadvantages of the Niger Delta?

- Cost of leaks = $10 million a day
- Too much dependence on narrow export base
- Many jobs go to foreigners = more skilled
- Dominated by 5 TNCs (eg Shell)

15

What are the environmental advantages of the Niger Delta?

- 60% of West Africa's fish stocks spawn in swamps, creeks and tidal inlets along delta coast

16

What are the environmental disadvantages of the Niger Delta?

- Oil spills poison soil = reduces crop production (4000 spills since 1958)
- 500 million tonnes of crude oil lost to spillage = degrades environment, ecosystem and wildlife
- WWF said Niger Delta region is 1 of 5 most polluted places on Earth
- Flaring of gas damages crops and causes acid rain
- Widespread deforestation
- Some illegal refineries put crude oil on boats where fish swim
- Dying vegetation = poisoned by soil turning soggy and greasy when oil seeps through
- Oil companies fail to maintain/replace rusty pipelines = more pollution and leakages