Flashcards in Energy - KQ3 (issues with increasing demand for energy) Deck (16)
What are the case studies?
- Three Gorges Dam China (HEP)
- Alaska, USA (oil)
- Niger Delta, Nigeria (oil)
What are facts about the Three Gorges Dam?
- ON Yangtze River
- Completed in 2009
- 2km wide and nearly 200m high
- 26 generators
- $20 billion estimated cost
- 66km long reservoir
What are the social issues with the Three Gorges Dam? (disadvantages)
- 1.3 million people forced to move = homes would be flooded
- Hundreds of new towns and cities built along reservoir = built too quickly and poor conditions
- Slowly moving water in reservoirs = health risks as pollutants collect
What are the social issues with the Three Gorges Dam? (advantages)
- Cheap renewable energy for locals
- Government has supported development of new towns = infrastructure development
- Reduced flood risk downstream = reduced death toll and financial losses
- Source of national pride
What are economic advantages of the Three Gorges Dam?
- Expensive to build and requires costly on going maintenance = reinforcing valley sides and reservoir dredging
- Agricultural land has been lost = affects local farmer's livelihood and income
What are the economic disadvantages of the Three Gorges Dam?
- Can supply 100 billion kilowatts per hour of energy to industries and domestic use
- Creates jobs (eg construction, maintenance, dam material supplies)
- Improved river transport = increased trade from Chongqing (31 million people) due to coast
What are the environmental issues with the Three Gorges Dam?
- 800 cultural, architectural historic sites covered by rising water levels
- Slow moving reservoir created by the dam = changed naturally fast flowing river ecosystem and some fish and plants not able to survive
- Agricultural land lost
- Less sediment downstream = river bed erosion increased = distributing ports on the river
What are the advantages and disadvantages of the North Slope?
- USA's largest oil field = over 30 years of oil pumping
- 800,000 barrels a day (16% of US production)
- 1/4 of world's untapped oil and gas reserves on Arctic
- Sourcing is dangerous
- Damage/melting of permafrost due to heat from buildings/pipelines
- Wildlife damaged = seismic exploration disturbs animals, oil spills degrade habitats and gravel extraction from river bed = less fish
What are the advantages and disadvantages of Area 1002?
- Possible drilling zone = greater security for supplies
- Can reduce imports of oil and gas = boosts balance of payments and job opportunities
- Drilling would take away 100,000s of Porcupine Caribou's main calving ground, grazing area and where they escape mosquitos and predators
- Tundra ecosystem is vulnerable
What are facts about the Niger Delta, Nigeria?
- In southern Nigeria = where Niger River enters Gulf of Guinea
- Oil exploration began in 1950s
- Region is rich in oil = 2 million barrels a day
- Nigeria = 8th largest oil producer in world
- 23 million people in Niger Delta region
- Poor quality housing
- 60% of population without electricity
- Life expectancy = 43 years -- 12% of babies die before 1
- Low levels of education and health services
- Nigeria = West Africa's biggest producer of petroleum
- 1/3 largest mangrove = high biodiversity
What are the social disadvantages of the Niger Delta?
- Local people become ill = flaring of gas creates gas fogs and acid rain = releases carcinogenic particles into environment = cancer and respiratory problems
- Children work at docks = no school
- 60% of people on less than $1 a day
- Not enough of oil profits are used to improve basic infrastructure
What are the social advantages of the Niger Delta?
- Children receive income from working on docks
- Oil sold for income
- Employment opportunities = better quality of life
- Low cost, locally refined fuel = provided for homes needing electricity
- Oil provides 80% government's revenues
What are the economic advantages of the Niger Delta?
- 2005 = oil production was 131 million tonnes
- 90% of Nigeria's exports by value
- Earned over $800 billion since in 1960
- Produced over 75% of Nigeria's earnings since 1975
What are the economic disadvantages of the Niger Delta?
- Cost of leaks = $10 million a day
- Too much dependence on narrow export base
- Many jobs go to foreigners = more skilled
- Dominated by 5 TNCs (eg Shell)
What are the environmental advantages of the Niger Delta?
- 60% of West Africa's fish stocks spawn in swamps, creeks and tidal inlets along delta coast