Flashcards in Energy - KQ2 (energy use and economic development) Deck (11)
Explain 'more economic development'
- More disposable income to spend on energy consuming products
- Increased demand from more industries
- Improved transport so more demand for diesel, petrol, etc
- Increased demand from agriculture = mechanisation
Explain 'more energy production or use'
- Increased foreign exchange earnings and foreign investment
- More employment
- Improved transport
- Growth of industries supplying energy industry (eg construction)
Why is there energy demand from emerging economies?
- Increasing access to electric power
- More population = higher energy demand
- Living standard expectation rise = more demand from existing customers
- Increasing car ownership = petrol and manufacturing
- Increase in manufacturing industry
- Increase in construction which relies on concrete = responsible for 6% of global CO2 emissions
- Increasing heating and air conditioning
Why does energy use remain low in LEDCs?
- Poverty = low disposable income for consumer products
- Limited government finance = cannot afford to import fossil fuels
- Distribution and supply routes of fuels can be disrupted by conflict
- Low tax rate/corrupt so do not invest in energy demanding industries (eg hospitals and schools)
- 2 billion people lack access to electricity
What are the benefits of better access to energy resources?
- Better quality of life
- Health improvements = reduced indoor air pollution from biomass fuels = provide insufficient cooking
- Empowerment of the poor = access to communication = people are better informed, more independent and can educate themselves
- Increased income = mechanisation = more productivity
What is the case study?
Mali, West Africa
What are the key facts for Mali?
- 13 million people = 48% under 15
- GDP per capita $1,200 (UK = $37,400)
- Labour = 80% primary, 20% industry/services
- Economy depends on cotton, gold/phosphate mining and fishing
- 23% of adults literate
- Female life expectancy 52 years
- Northern 65% of country = desert
What is the energy mix in Mali?
- OIl and petrol = 14%
- Traditional sources (wood and charcoal) = 85%
- Electricity = 1%
What are problems Mali has with energy?
- 17% of population have access
- Domestic energy comes from wood fires of small charcoal stoves = can cause respiratory probles and leads to deforestation = deforesting at 1% a year
- No fossil fuel reserves = dependant on petroleum from Senegal and Guinea = very expensive and not reliable (conflict)
- Imported petroleum = 8% of country's trade balance
What is the energy mix in the UK?
1972 to 2008
- Coal = 65% to 35%
- Oil = 25% to 5%
- Nuclear = 5% to 15%
- Gas = 4% to 35%
- Renewables = 2% to 5%