Flashcards in Energy - KQ4 (managing energy sustainable) Deck (17)
Intro/conclusion on energy management
- Often about balancing socio-economic and environmental needs = require detailed planning and management
- Management involves reducing or conserving inputs and reducing harmful outputs= but also about ensuring flows in the system are efficient
What is sustainability?
The ability to carry the system on into the future without a reduction in the system of standard of living
What are the two case studies?
- UK (Thanet Wind Farm)
What is energy like in the UK?
- Renewable sources = more sustainable than fossil fuels
- 7% of UK energy production = renewable
- UK government wants to increase the contribution of renewable sources to 15% by 2020
What are the key facts about wind energy in the UK?
- Supply 3% of UK energy
- On-shore wind supplies for 2.4 million homes = could deliver 14% of total required energy
- Offshore wind supplies 2 million homes
- UK = world's top generator of off-shore wind power
- 500 offshore turbines = potential for 5000-7000
What are the advantages of Thanet Wind Farm?
- 100 turbines = electricity for 200,000 homes
- Infinite energy = could meet 25% of needs
- Created 3600 jobs
- Decreases UK reliance on fossil fuel imports = reduces need for fracking = damages environment = air pollution
- No air pollution of greenhouse gases
- Skill level of employees has increased = positive implications for wider economy
What are the disadvantages of Thanet Wind Farm?
- Cost £800 million to build
- Wind farms have 25 year life
- Doesn't provide energy for most forms of transport
- Wind power isn't intermittent = needs to be backed up
- Employment may not be beneficial to those with wrong skills = only 30% of jobs for locals
- Unattractive and noisy
- Offshore turbines kills birds
What are the key facts for California?
- Most populous and rich state = over 36.5 million residents
- Past 20 years = increased awareness in environment
- Now a world leader in innovative and sustainable energy policies
- Legislation aims to reduce energy consumption = increase efficient use = use more renewable and cut greenhouse gas emissions
How is California trying to develop a more sustainable energy economy?
- CO2 production fell by nearly 1/3 from 1975 to 2005
- State government set targets in 2006 of 80% cut in greenhouse gas emissions by 2050
How is transport managed in California?
- 26 million vehicles emitting over 40 million tonnes of CO2 a year
- Laws introduced to enforce auto manufacturers to introduce cleaner technologies and cut vehicle exhaust emissions
- State government promoting use of non-petroleum fuels such as biodiesel, hydrogen and electricity
- Target = non-petroleum fuels to supply 30% of energy mix by 2030
How are coal fired power stations managed in California?
- Since 2005 companies may for greenhouse gas emissions ($8 per tonnes = increases by 5% a year)
- Now less attractive to businesses
- Government has banned electricity companies from sighting long-term contracts with coal-fired power stations
How is renewable energy managed in California?
- 2006 = 12% of electricity geothermal, wind, solar power, biomass and small HEP schemes
- 2006 = 19% from large HEP schemes
- Plans to increase proportion of renewable energy
- New Renewables Programme = subsidy for each electricity unit produced by new solar, biomass and wind energy scheme
- 202 target = 1/3 of electricity renewable
How is geothermal energy managed in California?
- Steam from hot rocks below surface make electricity in geothermal power plants
- Provides 5% of electricity
- 25 geothermal resource areas (eg Geysers, north of San Fran)
How is wind power managed in California?
- 14000 wind turbines (1.5% of electricity)
- 2/4 of annual wind power output is produced in spring and summer
- New Renewable Programs added 1000MW of new capacity from 2004 to 2010
- Require large tracts of land
- Installation of turbines = transmission systems = erosion = visual intrusion = disturbance to wildlife
How is solar power managed in California?
- Provides 1% of electricity
- 0.5 million of households use solar water heaters
- Ideal conditions in Mojave Desert (California) = 360 days of sun and 150mm of rainfall
- Solar Initiative = $3.2 billion in refunds to investors in solar power = 2000MW of expansion in solar energy
- Subsidies for solar projects on existing residential and business buildings
How is HEP managed in California?
- Provides 16% of electricity
- 5% imported
- Dams (eg Shasta in Sierra Nevada produce HEP and control flooding)