Flashcards in Energy - KQ1 (sources of energy and global pattern) Deck (20)
What is energy mix?
The mix of different types of energy that a country produces and consumes. This varies by country for a number of reasons
What are key facts about energy use?
- World energy consumption is increasing, but not in all regions
- Coal, oil and natural gas provide the most energy worldwide = HEP, renewables and nuclear provide less in comparison
- Energy consumption is highest in MEDCs (UK and USA), growing quickly in NICs (China) and slowest in LEDCs (Mali)
- LEDCs are often the highest consumers of biomass (eg wood)
Define proven oil reserves
How much oil we have
What is the Reserves-to-Production (RIP ration)?
The reserves remaining at the end of any year are divided by production in that year
- The result is the length of time that those remaining reserves would last if production were to continue at that level
What is supply shock?
A significant interruption to supply due to an environmental, economic or political event
What is OPEC?
The Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries
- Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Venezuela
What is peak oil production?
The year in which the world or an individual oil producing country reaches its highest level of production, with production declining thereafter
Estimates vary because:
- New oil reserves could be discovered
- Our consumption may reduce so it lasts longer
- a new energy source found
What are the types of energy?
- Non-renewable = fossil fuels (coal, gas, oil)
- Semi-renewable = wood, biofuels, nuclear
- Renewable = wind, tidal, wave, solar, geothermal, water
Where is the main source of oil?
- Middle East (Iran, Saudi Arabia, Turkey)
- Nearly 60%
Where is the main source of natural gas?
- Europe and Asia
Where is the main source of coal?
- Asia Pacific (India, Pakistan, China, Australia)
What are facts about oil?
- 30% of energy consumed from each region around the world
What are facts are natural gas?
- Increasingly popular = economic and efficient
- Produces less CO2 than coal or oil
- Least polluting of energy sources
- Production is dominated by Russia and USA
What are facts about coal?
- 2nd most global energy source
- Most polluting energy source, but largest global reserves
- Some countries still have large coal reserves
- USA, Russia, China, India and Australia produce over 2/3 of all oil
What are facts about nuclear energy?
- Rare but produced in Europe at 10%
What are facts about hydroelectric power?
- South and Central America at 28%
What are physical reasons for variation in energy supply?
- Deposits of fossil fuels are only found in several locations
- Large power stations require flat land
- Solar power needs strong sunlight and often
- Wind power needs strong wind
- Tidal power needs very large tidal range
- Availability of biomass varies due to climactic conditions
What are economic reasons for variation in energy supply?
- Most accessible, and lowest cost, deposits of fossil fuels are developed first
- Onshore deposits of oil and gas = usually cheaper to develop than offshore deposits
- Potential hydroelectric sites close to major transport routes and existing electricity
- When energy prices rise significantly, companies spend more on exploration and development
What are political reasons for variation in energy supply?
- Countries wanting to develop nuclear electricity require permission from the International Atomic Energy Agency
- International agreements (eg Kyoto Protocol) can have a considerable influence on the energy decisions of several countries
- Anti-pollution agreements