Energy - KQ1 (sources of energy and global pattern) Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Energy - KQ1 (sources of energy and global pattern) Deck (20)
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1

What is energy mix?

The mix of different types of energy that a country produces and consumes. This varies by country for a number of reasons

2

What are key facts about energy use?

- World energy consumption is increasing, but not in all regions
- Coal, oil and natural gas provide the most energy worldwide = HEP, renewables and nuclear provide less in comparison
- Energy consumption is highest in MEDCs (UK and USA), growing quickly in NICs (China) and slowest in LEDCs (Mali)
- LEDCs are often the highest consumers of biomass (eg wood)

3

Define proven oil reserves

How much oil we have

4

What is the Reserves-to-Production (RIP ration)?

The reserves remaining at the end of any year are divided by production in that year
- The result is the length of time that those remaining reserves would last if production were to continue at that level

5

What is supply shock?

A significant interruption to supply due to an environmental, economic or political event

6

What is OPEC?

The Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries
- Algeria, Angola, Ecuador, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Libya, Nigeria, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates and Venezuela

7

What is peak oil production?

The year in which the world or an individual oil producing country reaches its highest level of production, with production declining thereafter
Estimates vary because:
- New oil reserves could be discovered
- Our consumption may reduce so it lasts longer
- a new energy source found

8

What are the types of energy?

- Non-renewable = fossil fuels (coal, gas, oil)
- Semi-renewable = wood, biofuels, nuclear
- Renewable = wind, tidal, wave, solar, geothermal, water

9

Where is the main source of oil?

- Middle East (Iran, Saudi Arabia, Turkey)
- Nearly 60%

10

Where is the main source of natural gas?

- Europe and Asia
- 33%

11

Where is the main source of coal?

- Asia Pacific (India, Pakistan, China, Australia)
- 50%

12

What are facts about oil?

- 30% of energy consumed from each region around the world

13

What are facts are natural gas?

- Increasingly popular = economic and efficient
- Produces less CO2 than coal or oil
- Least polluting of energy sources
- Production is dominated by Russia and USA

14

What are facts about coal?

- 2nd most global energy source
- Most polluting energy source, but largest global reserves
- Some countries still have large coal reserves
- USA, Russia, China, India and Australia produce over 2/3 of all oil

15

What are facts about nuclear energy?

- Rare but produced in Europe at 10%

16

What are facts about hydroelectric power?

- South and Central America at 28%

17

What are physical reasons for variation in energy supply?

- Deposits of fossil fuels are only found in several locations
- Large power stations require flat land
- Solar power needs strong sunlight and often
- Wind power needs strong wind
- Tidal power needs very large tidal range
- Availability of biomass varies due to climactic conditions

18

What are economic reasons for variation in energy supply?

- Most accessible, and lowest cost, deposits of fossil fuels are developed first
- Onshore deposits of oil and gas = usually cheaper to develop than offshore deposits
- Potential hydroelectric sites close to major transport routes and existing electricity
- When energy prices rise significantly, companies spend more on exploration and development

19

What are political reasons for variation in energy supply?

- Countries wanting to develop nuclear electricity require permission from the International Atomic Energy Agency
- International agreements (eg Kyoto Protocol) can have a considerable influence on the energy decisions of several countries
- Anti-pollution agreements

20

What are the reasons for the changing pattern of energy consumption over time?

Technological development
- Nuclear energy only available since 1950s
- Oil and gas can be exported from much deeper waters
- Renewable energy technology is advancing steadily
Increasing national wealth
- Average income rising = improving living standard = more energy use and variations
Changes in demand
Changes in price
- Power stations are cheaper to run on natural gas
Environmental factors
- People are more aware of pollutants and the environment