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Flashcards in Development Deck (82)
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1

continuous development

gradually adding more of the same types of skills that were there to begin with

2

discontinuous development

new ways of thinking or approaching the world arise at specific times

3

eriksons psychosocial stages

basic trust v. mistrust (birth - 1yr)
autonomy v. shame and doubt (1 - 3yr)
initiative v. guilt (3-6yr)
industry v. inferiority (6-11yr)
identity v. identity confusion (adolescence)
intimacy v. isolation (emerging adulthood)
generativity v. stagnation (adulthood)
integrity v. despair (old age)

4

erikson - basic trust v. mistrust

birth - 1yr
mistrust occurs when infants have to wait too long for comfort

5

erikson - autonomy v. shame

1 - 3yr
autonomy fosters when parents permit reasonable free choice and do not force or shame child

6

erikson - initiative v. guilt

3-6yr
experiment kind of person they will become,e sign of ambition and responsibility when parents support child's new sense of purpose, might demand too much self control

7

erikson - industry v inferiority

6-11yr
inferiority if negative experiences at home school or with peers lead to incompetent feelings

8

erikson - identity v. identity confusion

adolescence
self chosen values and vocation goals leads to personal identity, confusion leads to negative outcome

9

erikson - intimacy v. isolation

emerging adulthood
work to establish intimate ties, may be hindered by previous disappointments

10

erikson - generativity v. stagnation

adulthood
giving to the next generation, feel an absence of meaningful accomplishment if not

11

erikson - integrity v. despair

old age
reflect on kind of person they've been, integrity if they feel it was good as is

12

ecological systems theory

develop within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of surrounding environment
microsystem
meosystem
ecosystem
macrosystem

13

microsystem

activities and interaction patterns in the child immediate surroundings

14

meosystem

connect between microsystems like home, school, and neighborhood

15

exosystem

social settings that do not contain children but affect their experiences in immediate settings

16

macrosystem

cultural values, laws, customs, and resources

17

piagets cognitive developmental theory

sensorimotor stage (birth-2yr)
preoperational (2-7yr)
concrete operational (7-11yr)
formal operational (11+)

18

piaget - schemes

at first, sensorimotor action patterns, then mental representations of various things

19

piaget - adaptation

building schemes through direct interaction with the environment

20

piaget - assimilation

use current schemes to interpret the external world

21

piaget - accommodation

create new schemes or adjust old ones after notice that our current way of thinking does not capture the entirety of our environment

22

piaget - equilibration

the flux between assimilation and accommodation

23

piaget - sensorimotor stage

birth-2yr
think by acting on world with eyes, ears, hands, and mouth, sold sensorimotor problems

24

piaget - substages of sensorimotor stage

1. reflexive schemes (birth - 1m): newborn reflexes
2. primary circular reaction (1-4m): simple motor habits centered around the infants own body; limited anticipation of events
3. secondary circular reactions (4-8m): actions aimed at repeating interesting effects in the surrounding world; imitation of familiar behaviors
4. coordination of secondary circular reactions (8 - 12m): intention goal directed behavior, object permanence, improved anticipation of events
5. Tertiary circular reactions (12 - 18m): exploration of the properties of objects by acting on them in novel ways; imitation of novel behaviors; ability to search multiple locations for an object
6. Mental representation (18m - 2yr): internal depictions of objects and events, beginning problem solving, invisible displacement, make believe play

25

piaget - preoperational stage

2-7yr
development of language and make believe play, lack logic of further stages

limitations
- egocentric: failure to distinguish viewpoints of others
- animistic thinking: believe that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities
- (inability of) conservation: certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same even when appearance changes
- (not able to exhibit) reversibility: ability to go through a series of steps in a problem and then mentally reverse
- (lack of) hierarchical classification: organization of objects into classes and subclasses

26

piaget - concerte operational

7-11yr
- conservation: certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same even when appearance changes
- decentration: recognizing that change in once aspect is compensated by another (water)
- classification: able to put objects into hierarchies
- seriation: ability to order items along a quantitative dimension
- transitive inference: can mentally seriate things ex. A is longer than B and B is longer than C, A is longer than C
- spatial reasoning: can perform mental rotations and create cognitive maps

limitations
- cannot think in or with abstract concepts

27

piaget - formal operational

11+
abstract thinking, think of all possible outcomes in a problem, not just obvious ones
- hypothetic-deductive reasoning: systematic testing of hypotheses. starts with possibility and proceeds to reality.
- propositional thought: evaluate logic of propositions (verbal statements) without referring to real-world circumstances
- ability to metacognate leads to egocentricism
- imaginary audience: everyone is concerned with me
- personal fable: inflated opinion of their own experience
- often do not engage in rational decision making

28

core knowledge perspective

infants begin life with innate, special purpose knowledge systems known as core domains of thought
- physical knowledge
- numerical knowledge
theory or children as theorists (the OG scientist)

29

vygotskys sociocultural theory

views human cognition as inherently social and language based
infants born with basic perceptual, attention, and memory capacities similar to animals. growth on language leads to a change in thinking, through social interactions children are taught important cultural functions and begin to converse with themselves as they do with others, this transforms thought int higher cognitive processes

30

vygotskys - private speech

talking to oneself, viewed as a foundation for all higher cognitive processes - used with difficult tasks, after errors, confusion