Counseling - theories and techniques Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Counseling - theories and techniques Deck (82)
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1

counseling theory breakdown

psychoanalytic
- psychoanalysis
-psychodynamic
humanistic/experiential
- existential
- person centered
- gestalt
- alderian
- EFT
learning/cognitive
- behavioral
- CBT
- cognitive

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alderian (founder and goal)

Alfred Adler
challenge clients lifestyle and selfish goals toward social interest (be a productive part of society)

3

alderian (success is...)

- well developed social interest, contributes to society
- positive outlook on life and concern for others welfare

4

alderian (dysfunction arises...)

- when persons private logic set to view life as negative
- causes lifestyle of only caring for self, no social interest

5

alderian (techniques)

- gathering life history data
- family constellations
- early memories
- goals
- value clients subjective experience
- offer interpretations
- search for new goals
- examine birth order
- superiority/inferiority complex

6

alderian (strengths)

- influenced other theories and traditions
- power of individual
- power of goals

7

alderian (limitations)

- too simple
- difficult to measure constructs
- supported by limited research

8

person-centered (founder and goal)

Carl Rogers
align actual and ideal self through therapeutic relationship - congruence

9

person-centered (success is...)

alignment of actual and ideal self to have congruence

10

person-centered (beliefs)

- change occurs through therapy with core conditions (empathy, unconditional positive regard, congruence)
- clients role in change is to attend therapy, explore past and actual/ideal self, self actualize, desire to work on problems, co-lead with the counselor
- humans have innate drive to self actualize

11

person-centered (dysfunction arises...)

- from incongruence
- caused by hearing and internalizing conditions of worth

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person-centered (techniques)

- active listening
- reflecting
- being there
- understanding
- empathy

13

person-centered (strengths)

- good core conditions helpful in therapy
- gives power and autonomy to clients
- strong empirical support
- receptive to research
- good foundation for therapeutic relationship

14

person-centered (limitations)

therapist could be too passive
many clients need more direction, interventions

15

existential (founder and goals)

Yalom and Frankl
client accept death, freedom, isolation, meaninglessness, and become authentic

16

existential (success is...)

- authentic living
- awareness of own freedom to make choices
- removal of things that block freedom/personal choice

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existential (beliefs)

- humans need to find meaning
- central problems people face are embedded in anxiety over loneliness, isolation, despair, and death
- each individual is responsible for making meaning out of life

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existential (dysfunction arises...)

problems come from not exercise choice or judgment well enough to forge meaning

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existential (techniques)

none - must be flexible to use techniques when necessary to address givens of existence

20

existential (strengths)

- flexible
- could be used with a diverse range of clients all facing same dilemmas of life
- focus on meaning of life/what it means to be a person

21

existential (limitations)

- abstract
- limited specific interventions
- limited applicability to clients that are less responsive to abstract concepts/in crisis

22

gestalt (founder and goals)

Fritz and Perls
become more aware of moment to moment experiencing and expand clients capacity to make choices

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gestalt (success is...)

- authentic self
- attending to needs

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gestalt (beliefs)

- clients will increase awareness of needs and behaviors they engage in to meet those needs
- behavior is governed by unmet needs
- the whole is better than the sum of parts
- approach is phenomenological - focuses on clients perceptions of reality
- existential - grounded in the notion that people are always in the process of becoming, remaking, rediscovering themselves

25

gestalt (dysfunction arises...)

- when client needs are not met and result in unfinished business
- this causes both a change in behavior and perception
- dysfunction viewed as disease

26

gestalt (techniques)

- incomplete gestalts = unfinished business
- here and now
- satisfying needs
- empty chair technique
- two chair technique

27

gestalt (strengths)

- focus on in the moment experience is very active
- focus on non-verbal behavior

28

gestalt (limitations)

- if focus is only on experience in the moment without cognitive work, they can be left feeling undone/ not integrated in to their whole self
- requires imagination

29

eft (founder and goals)

Johnson and Greenberg
assist clients to experience emotions as they arise to help them process and understand their emotions

30

eft (beliefs)

- hope to transform maladaptive reactions to emotion
- change occurs through increasing emotional awareness and enhancing emotion regulation