Flashcards in CPR Thoracic Radiology Deck (15)
Which ribs are most commonly fractured?
What is the best modality to assess rib fractures?
CT better than xray
What are rib fractures usually associated with?
Pneumothorax, hemothorax, injuries to spleen/liver/kidney
What is a tension pneumothorax?
When air enters thorax and cannot exit, can be due to trauma or ventilator. Lung collapses and impairs O2 venous return = cardiac arrest
What is a spontaneous pneumothorax?
Spontaneous rupture of alveoli through visceral pleura causing air to leak into cavity and lung to collapse over time. Smoking, COPD, CF, and inherited apical bleb are all risk factors
What is a pulmonary meniscus sign?
Seen on xray with pleural effusion, is due to surface tension between serous fluid and pleural effusion in the pleural cavity
What is a coin sign?
Round, solitary shadow seen on xray. Can be due to TB, neoplasm, cyst, or vascular anomalies
What are Kerley lines? What can cause them?
Seen when the interlobular septa in the pulmonary interstitium become prominent.
Pulmonary edema, lymphoma, other cancers, pneumonia
What are Kerley A lines?
Diagonal lines running from hila to periphery
What often causes Kerley A lines?
Distention of anatamosic channels btwn peripheral and central lymphatics
What are Kerley B lines?
Short parallel lines at periphery, perpendicular to pleura
What is cardiac tamponade?
Fluid buildup in pericardial cavity that obstructs blood flow due to heart compression. Is a medical emergency
What are symptoms of cardiac tamponade?
Beck's triad: distant heart sounds, jugular distension, hypotension
What is an aortogram (DSA)?
digital subtractive angiogram - image taken before and after dye is introduced. First image subtracted out to increase clarity of vessels