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Flashcards in Body Folding & Body Cavities Deck (42)
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1

What are the phases of embryonic development?

Growth
Morphogenesis
Differentiation

2

What causes the pulling and pinching of an embryo into new shapes?

Upregulation and downregulation of cell junctions

3

What does the growth phase refer to?

Cell division and elaboration of cell products

4

What does the morphogenesis phase refer to?

Development of shape, size, and other features of a particular organ or part or the whole body

5

What is morphogenesis controlled by?

Gene expression and regulation in an orderly sequence

6

What does the differentiation phase refer to?

Cells organized in precise pattern of tissues and organs capable of performing specialized functions

7

Where does the primordium of the intraembronic coelom first appear?

In the lateral plate mesoderm

8

What is the lateral plate mesoderm divided into?

Somatic (parietal) layer
Splanchnic (visceral) layer

9

What is the somatic (parietal) layer of lateral mesoderm continuous with?

Extramembryonic mesoderm covering amnion

10

What is the splanchnic (visceral) layer of lateral mesoderm continuous with?

Extraembryonic mesoderm covering umbilical vesicle

11

What is the somatopleure?

Somatic mesoderm and overlying embryonic ectoderm that forms the body wall

12

What is the splanchnopleure?

Splanchnic mesoderm and underlying embryonic endoderm that forms embryonic gut

13

When does embryonic head folding begin?

Week 4/day 22

14

What do the neural folds do during head folding?

Project dorsally and overgrow pharyngeal membrane

15

What does overgrowth of the neural folds do with regards to other structures?

Moves septum transversum, primordial heart, pericardial coelom, and oropharyngeal membrane to ventral surface

16

During head folding, what happens with the endoderm?

It is incorporated as the foregut

17

What structures does head folding move into their appropriate locations?

Mouth, heart, and gut tube

18

What causes folding of the caudal end of the embryo?

Growth of the distal neural tube

19

After tail folding, the caudal eminence (tail region) projects over what?

The cloacal membrane (future anus)

20

What germ layer helps form the hindgut and midgut?

Endoderm

21

Where does the primitive streak lie relative to the cloacal membrane before and after folding?

Before: cranial to cloacal membrane
After: caudal to cloacal membrane

22

What is the allantois?

Diverticulum of umbilical vesicle

23

What structures does tail folding reposition?

Hindgut, primitive streak, and cloacal membrane

24

How do the lateral folds create a cylindrical embryo?

R/L lateral folds extend ventrally toward midline, wrapping around embryo to fuse

25

What is the omphaloenteric duct?

Connection between umbilical vesicle and midgut

26

What is gastroschisis?

Protrusion of viscera to the R of the umbilical cord, bowel uncovered and floating in amniotic fluid

Caused by failure of lateral body folds to fuse properly

27

What is a congenital epigastric hernia?

Midline bulge of abdominal wall between xiphoid process and umbilicus, bowel not exposed

28

What is the intraembryonic coelom divided into?

Pericardial cavity
Pleural cavities
Peritoneal cavity

29

What are the pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities lined with?

Mesothelium

30

What is the location of the pericardial cavity after head folding?

Anterior to foregut and cranial to septum transversum