Flashcards in CPR Cardiology Deck (71)
What separates the superior mediastinum from the inferior mediastinum?
divisions of the inferior mediastinum
anterior (ant to heart)
posterior (post to heart)
What is the other name for the epicardium?
visceral serous pericardium
Describe systemic circulation
from LA past bicuspid valve into LV, out of heart thru aortic valve and into aorta, through arterial system, thru capillaries, thru venous system and back into heart thru SVC and IVC
Describe pulmonary circulation
from SVC & IVC into RA, past tricuspid valve into RV & out of heart thru pulmonary valve into pulmonary trunk, thru R & L lungs, back towards heart thru pulmonary veins
What are the 4 main layers of the heart?
lack of blood flow to specific area of myocardium (usually b/c blockage in coronary A)
coronary atherosclerosis in walls of coronary As decreases lumen of vessel & increases likelihood that vessel is blocked entirely
pain that originates in heart & produces strangling pain of chest
usually from narrow or obstructed coronary arteries that produces ischemia of myocardium
Where are the crista/sulcus terminalis found?
What is the other name for the inferior border of the heart?
What embryological structure becomes the ligamentum arteriosum?
What two vessels did the ductus arteriosus gap?
Aorta & Pulmonary Trunk
What nerve can be compressed in an aortic aneurysm @ the spot of the ligamentum arteriosum?
Left recurrent laryngeal nerve
(runs under the weak spot of the aorta created by the ligamentum arteriosum)
Describe the endocardium
thin internal endothelial (& subendothelial layer in ventricles) that lines the inside of the chambers of the heart & its valves
Roles of fibrous skeleton of heart
produces attachment points for myocardium
produces attachment points for valves
supports & strengthens atrioventricular & semilunar orifices
provides electrically insulated barrier btwn artia & ventricles
What is considered the apex of the heart?
inferolateral part of the LV (points left)
What is considered the base of the heart?
posterior portion (near L atrium)
Which surface is made up of the R & L ventricles?
What makes up the sternocostal surface of the heart?
What makes up the pulmonary surface of the heart?
Right atrium & left ventricle (occupies cardiac impression on both lungs)
Describe the borders of the heart
Superior=R & L atria
right atrioventricular groove
btwn R atrium & R ventricle
transmits R coronary A
left atrioventricular groove
btwn L atrium & L ventricle
houses coronary sinus
anterior interventricular groove
btwn R & L ventricles on anterior aspect of heart
transmits anterior interventricular A & great cardiac V
posterior interventricular groove
btwn R & L ventricles on posterior aspect of heart
transmits posterior interventricular A & middle cardiac V
external vertical groove that corresponds to internal crista terminalis
What is the ligamentum arteriosum?
embryological remnant of ductus arteriosus (was communication btwn pulmonary trunk & aorta)
What was the embryological significance of the ductus arteriosus?
shunted blood from pulmonary trunk to aorta to bypass the nonfunctional luns
What nerve is close to aortic arch & ligamentum arteriosum?
How can the nerve be affected?
left recurrent laryngeal N of the vagus N
can be impacted by aneurysm in nearby structures (aorta & pulm trunk)