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Flashcards in CPR Cardiology Deck (71)
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1

What separates the superior mediastinum from the inferior mediastinum?

sternal angle

2

divisions of the inferior mediastinum

anterior (ant to heart)
middle (HEART)
posterior (post to heart)

3

What is the other name for the epicardium?

visceral serous pericardium

4

Describe systemic circulation

from LA past bicuspid valve into LV, out of heart thru aortic valve and into aorta, through arterial system, thru capillaries, thru venous system and back into heart thru SVC and IVC

5

Describe pulmonary circulation

from SVC & IVC into RA, past tricuspid valve into RV & out of heart thru pulmonary valve into pulmonary trunk, thru R & L lungs, back towards heart thru pulmonary veins

6

What are the 4 main layers of the heart?

fibrous pericardium
epicardium
myocardium
endocardium

7

Myocardial infarction

lack of blood flow to specific area of myocardium (usually b/c blockage in coronary A)

coronary atherosclerosis in walls of coronary As decreases lumen of vessel & increases likelihood that vessel is blocked entirely

8

Angina pectoris

pain that originates in heart & produces strangling pain of chest

usually from narrow or obstructed coronary arteries that produces ischemia of myocardium

9

Where are the crista/sulcus terminalis found?

right atrium

10

What is the other name for the inferior border of the heart?

right margin

11

What embryological structure becomes the ligamentum arteriosum?

Ductus arteriosus

12

What two vessels did the ductus arteriosus gap?

Aorta & Pulmonary Trunk

13

What nerve can be compressed in an aortic aneurysm @ the spot of the ligamentum arteriosum?

Left recurrent laryngeal nerve

(runs under the weak spot of the aorta created by the ligamentum arteriosum)

14

Describe the endocardium

thin internal endothelial (& subendothelial layer in ventricles) that lines the inside of the chambers of the heart & its valves

15

Roles of fibrous skeleton of heart

produces attachment points for myocardium

produces attachment points for valves

supports & strengthens atrioventricular & semilunar orifices

provides electrically insulated barrier btwn artia & ventricles

16

What is considered the apex of the heart?

inferolateral part of the LV (points left)

17

What is considered the base of the heart?

posterior portion (near L atrium)

18

Which surface is made up of the R & L ventricles?

diaphragmatic surface

19

What makes up the sternocostal surface of the heart?

Right ventricle

20

What makes up the pulmonary surface of the heart?

Right atrium & left ventricle (occupies cardiac impression on both lungs)

21

Describe the borders of the heart

Right=Right atrium
Inferior=Right ventricle
Left=left ventricle
Superior=R & L atria

22

right atrioventricular groove

btwn R atrium & R ventricle

transmits R coronary A

23

left atrioventricular groove

btwn L atrium & L ventricle

houses coronary sinus

24

anterior interventricular groove

btwn R & L ventricles on anterior aspect of heart

transmits anterior interventricular A & great cardiac V

25

posterior interventricular groove

btwn R & L ventricles on posterior aspect of heart

transmits posterior interventricular A & middle cardiac V

26

sulcus terminalis

external vertical groove that corresponds to internal crista terminalis

27

What is the ligamentum arteriosum?

embryological remnant of ductus arteriosus (was communication btwn pulmonary trunk & aorta)

28

What was the embryological significance of the ductus arteriosus?

shunted blood from pulmonary trunk to aorta to bypass the nonfunctional luns

29

What nerve is close to aortic arch & ligamentum arteriosum?

How can the nerve be affected?

left recurrent laryngeal N of the vagus N

can be impacted by aneurysm in nearby structures (aorta & pulm trunk)

30

What is the underlying cause of atrial septal defects?

incomplete closure of the foramen ovale (larger openings in the interatrial septum can cause issues if mixing of O2 rich & depleted blood)