Flashcards in chapter 22 (Scientific Revolution) Deck (33)
What is the geocentric theory?
the scientific theory that the earth is the center of the universe
What is the heliocentric theory?
The theory that the sun is the center of the earth
What are the four steps of the scientific method?
observation, hypothesis, testing, and analysis
What were some causes that sparked the Scientific Revolution?
-exploration of new lands called for better technology
-printing press (spread new ideas)
What were some of Galileo's major acheivements?
-confirmed the heliocentric theory
-discovered that moons and stars were not made of pure substance
What did the Church do to Galileo?
-told him to take back his statements or else be torchured
-he lied to not be torchured
-was on house arrest for the rest of his life
What two scientists together discovered the heliocentric theory?
Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler
approach that urged scientists to experiment and then draw conclusions
What scientist believed in empiricism?
What did René Descartes support?
the use of math and logic to determine an answer of a scientific question
What book did Descartes write?
A Discourse on Method
What law did Newton discover?
The law of gravity
What is the law that explains how volume, pressure, and temperature of gas affect each other?
Define the term "social contract"
the agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society or government
What did Thomas Hobbes believe?
That all people were born equally greedy and social contract was the best solution
What did John Locke believe?
-it is human nature to live in peace
-people are good and could take care of their own affairs
-no need for government
Who were the Philosophes?
a group of social critics in France who met to discuss ideas
Who was Voltaire and what did he fight for?
a writer who fought for religious freedom, tolerance, and freedom of speech
What did Montesquieu fight write about?
-wrote about checks and balances in government
-his book became basis for Declaration of Independence and a lot of U.S. government
What did Rousseau fight for and believe?
fought for individual freedom and believed society corrupted people's business
What did Beccaria fight for?
-fought to abolish criminal punishment and torture of any prisoners
What did Mary Wollstonecraft write and what was it about?
"A Vindication of the Rights of Woman" and it was about women in medicine, politics, and education
Who wrote and published the first Encyclopedia?
an art style which was characterized by a grand, ornate design
What was neoclassic style?
a new style during the Enlightenment that worked in an elegant and simple style that borrowed ideas from Greece and Rome
What music style developed from the Enlightenment?
Define classical musical style
a music style with a new, lighter, more elegant style
What new writing style began to emerge during the Enlightenement?
the writing of novels
What were enlightened despots?
monarchs that embraced the ideas of the Enlightenment?