chapter 22 (Scientific Revolution) Flashcards Preview

World History > chapter 22 (Scientific Revolution) > Flashcards

Flashcards in chapter 22 (Scientific Revolution) Deck (33)
Loading flashcards...
0

What is the geocentric theory?

the scientific theory that the earth is the center of the universe

1

What is the heliocentric theory?

The theory that the sun is the center of the earth

2

What are the four steps of the scientific method?

observation, hypothesis, testing, and analysis

3

What were some causes that sparked the Scientific Revolution?

-exploration of new lands called for better technology
-printing press (spread new ideas)

4

What were some of Galileo's major acheivements?

-confirmed the heliocentric theory
-discovered that moons and stars were not made of pure substance

5

What did the Church do to Galileo?

-told him to take back his statements or else be torchured
-he lied to not be torchured
-was on house arrest for the rest of his life

6

What two scientists together discovered the heliocentric theory?

Tycho Brahe and Johannes Kepler

7

Define epiricism

approach that urged scientists to experiment and then draw conclusions

8

What scientist believed in empiricism?

Francis Bacon

9

What did René Descartes support?

the use of math and logic to determine an answer of a scientific question

10

What book did Descartes write?

A Discourse on Method

11

What law did Newton discover?

The law of gravity

12

What is the law that explains how volume, pressure, and temperature of gas affect each other?

Boyle's Law

13

Define the term "social contract"

the agreement by which people define and limit their individual rights, thus creating an organized society or government

14

What did Thomas Hobbes believe?

That all people were born equally greedy and social contract was the best solution

15

What did John Locke believe?

-it is human nature to live in peace
-people are good and could take care of their own affairs
-no need for government

16

Who were the Philosophes?

a group of social critics in France who met to discuss ideas

17

Who was Voltaire and what did he fight for?

a writer who fought for religious freedom, tolerance, and freedom of speech

18

What did Montesquieu fight write about?

-wrote about checks and balances in government
-his book became basis for Declaration of Independence and a lot of U.S. government

19

What did Rousseau fight for and believe?

fought for individual freedom and believed society corrupted people's business

20

What did Beccaria fight for?

-fought to abolish criminal punishment and torture of any prisoners

21

What did Mary Wollstonecraft write and what was it about?

"A Vindication of the Rights of Woman" and it was about women in medicine, politics, and education

22

Who wrote and published the first Encyclopedia?

Diderot

23

Define "baroque"

an art style which was characterized by a grand, ornate design

24

What was neoclassic style?

a new style during the Enlightenment that worked in an elegant and simple style that borrowed ideas from Greece and Rome

25

What music style developed from the Enlightenment?

classical style

26

Define classical musical style

a music style with a new, lighter, more elegant style

27

What new writing style began to emerge during the Enlightenement?

the writing of novels

28

What were enlightened despots?

monarchs that embraced the ideas of the Enlightenment?

29

What did Fredrick the Great do?

Committed himself to westernizing Prussia