Chapter 2 - Sociological Research Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Chapter 2 - Sociological Research Deck (31)
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1

Case Study

In-depth analysis of a single event, situation, or individual

2

Code of Ethics

A set of guidelines that the American Sociological Association has established to foster ethical research and professionally responsible scholarship in sociology.

3

Content Analysis

Applying a systematic approach to record and value information gleaned from secondary data as it related to the study at hand

4

Correlation

When a change in one variable coincides with a change in another variable, but does not necessarily indicate causation

5

Dependent Variables

A variable changed by other variables

6

Empirical Evidence

Evidence that comes from direct experience, scientifically fathered data, or experimentation

7

Ethnography

Observing a complete social setting and all that it entails

8

Experiment

The testing of a hypothesis under controlled conditions

9

Field Research

Gathering data from a natural environment without doing a lab experiment or a survey

10

Hawthorne Effect

When study subjects behave in a certain manner due to their awareness of being observed by a researcher

11

Hypothesis

A testable educated guess about predicted outcomes between two or more variables

12

Independent variables

Variables that cause change in dependent variables

13

Interpretive Framework

A sociological research approach that seeks in-depth understanding of a topic or subject through observation or interaction; this approach is not basis on hypothesis testing

14

Interview

A one-on-one conversation between the researcher and the subject

15

Literature Review

A scholarly research step that entails identifying and studying all existing studies on a topic to create a basis for new research

16

Meta-analysis

A technique in which the results of virtually all previous studies on a specific subject are evaluated together

17

Non-Reactive Research

Using secondary data, does not include direct contact with subjects and will not alter or influence people’s behaviors

18

Operational Definitions

Specific explanations of abstract concepts that a researcher plans to study

19

Participant Observation

When a researcher immerses herself in a group or social setting in order to make observations from an “insider” perspective

20

Population

A defined group serving as the subject of a study

21

Primary Data

Data that are collected directly from firsthand experience

22

Qualitative data

Comprise information that is subjective and often based on what is seen in a natural setting

23

Quantitative Data

Represent research collected in numerical form that can be counted

24

Random Sample

A study’s participants being randomly selected to serve as a representation of a larger population

25

Reliability

A measure of a study’s consistency that considers how likely results are to be replicated if a study is reproduced.

26

Samples

Small, manageable number of subjects that represent the population.

27

Scientific Method

An established scholarly research method that involves asking a question, researching existing sources, forming a hypothesis, designing and conducting a study, and drawing conclusions.

28

Secondary Data Analysis

Using data collected by others but applying new interpretations

29

Surveys

Collect data from subjects who respond to a series of questions about behaviors and opinions, often in the form of a questionnaire

30

Validity

The degree to which a sociological measure accurately reflects the topic of study