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Flashcards in Ch. 12 Deck (45)
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1

An ______ examination should always be done as part of a _____ or ______ evaluation.

An orofacial examination should always be done as part of a speech or resonance evaluation.

2

______ factors often contribute to the deviant _____ or _____ characteristics.

Structural factors often contribute to the deviant speech or resonance characteristics.

3

Examination of the Oral Cavity:
Can evaluate oral _____ and oral ______
Cannot evaluate velopharyngeal _____ or VP ______
View well _____ area of ____

Can evaluate oral structures and oral function
Cannot evaluate velopharyngeal structure or VP function
View well below area of closure

4

Examination of the Oral Cavity:
_____
_____
_____
_____ _______
_______ ______, preferably the _______ kind
_______ _______ _____

Tools
Gloves
Light
Dental mirror
Tongue blades, preferably the flavored kind
Antimicrobial hand rinse

5

Have the patient say /___/ (as in “____”), instead of /___/ (as in “_____”)
Tell the patient to stick the tongue ____ and ____ as far as it will go during _____.

Have the patient say /æ/ (as in “hat”), instead of /ɑ/ (as in “father”)
Tell the patient to stick the tongue out and down as far as it will go during phonation.

6

For palatal palpation (if there is a suspicion of a ______ cleft:
Always use _____!
Use ____ _____ with children.
Begin by stimulating the ____ _____.
Move finger behind _____, and follow _____ _____ of _____ _____.
Palpate middle of ______ ____ _____ for _______.

For palatal palpation (if there is a suspicion of a submucous cleft:
Always use gloves!
Use little finger with children.
Begin by stimulating the alveolar ridge.
Move finger behind molars, and follow posterior border of hard palate.
Palpate middle of posterior nasal spine for indentation.

7

Dental mirror
Can be used like a _____ _____
Can be used to examine the ____ for a _____

Dental mirror
Can be used like a tongue blade
Can be used to examine the palate for a fistula

8

Positioning for uncooperative patients:
For toddlers and infants:
Place in _____ lap and lay child _____ so the head is _____ parent’s knees.
Sit _____ from parent (Child’s head can be in your ____)/
_____ child’s ____ if necessary.
_____ actually helps.

For toddlers and infants:
Place in parent’s lap and lay child back so the head is over parent’s knees.
Sit across from parent (child’s head can be in your lap)/
Close child’s nose if necessary.
Crying actually helps.

9

Positioning for uncooperative patients:
For preschoolers:
Place the ____ ____ between the upper and lower teeth to keep mouth _____.
Move the tongue blade to the _____ of the tongue, and apply steady _____.
Muscles will _____ and mouth will _____.

For preschoolers:
Place the tongue blade between the upper and lower teeth to keep mouth open.
Move the tongue blade to the middle of the tongue, and apply steady pressure.
Muscles will tire and mouth will open.

10

Orofacial Evaluation:
_____
_____
_____ and _____
_____ _____ and ______
_____
______ and ________
_______
_______
_______ and _____ ______
_______ and _____
_______ and _____ ______ ____

Eyes
Ears
Nose and airway
Facial bones and profile
Lips
Dentition and occlusions
Tongue
Tonsils
Alveolus and hard palate
Velum and uvula
Posterior and lateral pharyngeal walls

11

Eyes:
Look for the following:
Hypertelorism—_______ spacing between the eyes

Look for the following:
Hypertelorism—excessive spacing between the eyes

12

Eyes:
Look for the following:
Hypotelorism—___ _____ spacing between the eyes

Look for the following:
Hypotelorism—too little spacing between the eyes

13

Eyes:
Look for the following:
Narrow palpebral fissures—______ between the eyes

Narrow palpebral fissures—opening between the eyes

14

Eyes:
Look for the following:
Epicanthal folds—excess ____ ___ ____ at the inner corner of the eye

Epicanthal folds—excess folds of tissue at the inner corner of the eye

15

Ears:
Look for the following:
Microtia: simplified ______

Microtia: simplified helix

16

Ears:
Look for the following:
Low-set or _____ ears

Low-set or malformed ears

17

Lips:
Look for the following:
_____ or reduced _____ of the _____ lip

Short or reduced mobility of the upper lip

18

Lips:
Look for the following:
Bilabial incompetence—inability to achieve ____ ______ at rest and during production of ______ sounds

Bilabial incompetence—inability to achieve bilabial closure at rest and during production of bilabial sounds

19

Lips:
Look for the following:
Open-mouth posture—when the lips are chronically ____ and the _____ is also involved

Open-mouth posture—when the lips are chronically open and the mandible is also involved

20

Lips:
Look for the following:
Bilateral lip ____ on the ___ lip

Bilateral lip pits on the lower lip

21

Nose and Airway:
Look for the Following:
Flat _____ ______: bony structure between the eyes
_____ nasal ______
Short ________
______ _______

Flat nasal bridge: bony structure between the eyes
Bulbous nasal tip
Short columella
Stenotic nares

22

Nose and Airway:
Look for evidence of Upper Airway Obstruction:
Adenoid facies—______ under eyes, pinched _____, narrow and elongated ____, downward position of the ______
____-_____ posture
______ breathing
_____ and history of ______ sleeping

Adenoid facies—darkness under eyes, pinched nostrils, narrow and elongated face, downward position of the mandible
Open-mouth posture
Strident breathing
Snoring and history of restless sleeping

23

To test airway:
-Have patient to ____ the lips and breathe ___ for several minutes.
-Then have patient ____ deeply through the ____.
-Look for nasal _____ or listen for _____ sound.
-Have patient prolong an /__/, and listen for ____.

Have patient to close the lips and breathe nasally for several minutes.
Then have patient inspire deeply through the nose.
Look for nasal pinching or listen for strident sound.
Have patient prolong an /m/, and listen for hyponasality.

24

Facial Bones and Profile
Look for the following:
______ ________—cheekbones
Maxillary _______/midface ______
______ or ______ mandible

Flattened zygomas—cheekbones
Maxillary retrusion/midface deficiency
Micrognathic or prognathic mandible

25

Dentition and Occlusion:
Look for the following:
______ teeth
______ teeth
______ teeth
______ bite
______
______

Missing teeth
rotated teeth
supernumerary teeth
deep bite
overjet
underjet

26

Dentition and Occlusion:
Look for the following:
Class ______ malocclusion

Class II malocclusion

27

Dentition and Occlusion:
Look for the following:
Class _____ malocclusion

Class III malocclusion

28

Tongue
Look for the following:
Position of the tongue _____ relative to the _____ ______
_____—abnormally _____ tongue

Position of the tongue tip relative to the alveolar ridge
Macroglossia—abnormally large tongue

29

Tongue
Look for the following:
________ of the tongue

Lobulations of the tongue

30

Tongue
Look for the following:
Ankyloglossia—also called “____-_____,” where patient cannot:
______ the tongue _____ to touch the roof of mouth with mouth open.
Protrude the tongue tip past the mandibular gingival ridge or mandibular incisors.
Whether child can produce /__/ and /___/ (if age appropriate) must be checked.

Ankyloglossia—also called “tongue-tie,” where patient cannot:
Elevate the tongue tip to touch the roof of mouth with mouth open.
Protrude the tongue tip past the mandibular gingival ridge or mandibular incisors.
Whether child can produce /l/ and /θ/ (if age appropriate) must be checked.