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Flashcards in Ch. 7 Deck (78)
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1

Resonance disorders are common in individuals with a history of ____ ____ and _____ or other craniofacial anomalies.
Can be due to ______ _______, or obstruction in vocal tract

Resonance disorders are common in individuals with a history of cleft lip and palate or other craniofacial anomalies.
Can be due to velopharyngeal dysfunction, or obstruction in vocal tract

2

Velopharyngeal dysfunction can cause a ______ disorder (hypernasality) and also _____ _______ of the air
Significant nasal emission can cause other speech characteristics due to lack of _____ _____ ______ and air pressure

Velopharyngeal dysfunction can cause a resonance disorder (hypernasality) and also nasal emission of the air
Significant nasal emission can cause other speech characteristics due to lack of adequate oral airflow and air pressure

3

Normal Resonance:
-Speech requires both ______ and ______
-Airflow is converted into _____ ______ by articulators, which is needed for _____-_____ _______ (plosives, fricatives and affricates)
-Sound is modified by _______, which is needed for _____ consonants and ______.

Speech requires both airflow and sound.
Airflow is converted into air pressure by articulators, which is needed for pressure-sensitive consonants (plosives, fricatives and affricates)
Sound is modified by resonance, which is needed for voiced consonants and vowels

4

Schema of Speech Production

see ch. 7 powerpoint

5

-Resonance—tendency of a system to ______(oscillate) with a larger ______ at some frequencies than others due to the natural vibration of the system
-Resonance with speech—modification of ______ ______ through selective ________ of certain frequencies
-Resonance provides the _____ and ______ of the voice

Resonance—tendency of a system to vibrate (oscillate) with a larger amplitude at some frequencies than others due to the natural vibration of the system
Resonance with speech—modification of phonated sound through selective enhancement of certain frequencies
Resonance provides the quality and uniqueness of the voice.

6

-Resonance is determined by ____ and _____ of cavities of the _____ ______ (pharyngeal, oral, and nasal cavities).
-_______ cavities enhance ______ frequencies.
-______ cavities enhance _____ frequencies and result in a richer sound.

Resonance is determined by size and shape of cavities of the vocal tract (pharyngeal, oral, and nasal cavities).
Smaller cavities enhance higher frequencies.
Larger cavities enhance lower frequencies and result in a richer sound.

7

-Resonance is a component of ___ ______ consonants and all ______.
-Vowels are actually ______ sounds.
-They are produced by changing the ____ and ____ of the oral cavity with tongue, mandible, and lips.
-Vowels affect the size and shape of oral cavity, changing selective enhancement of _____ frequencies and _____ of the vowel.

Resonance is a component of all voiced consonants and all vowels.
Vowels are actually resonance sounds.
They are produced by changing the size and shape of the oral cavity with tongue, mandible, and lips.
Vowels affect the size and shape of oral cavity, changing selective enhancement of formant frequencies and perception of the vowel.

8

High vowels have more nasal resonance than low vowels.
High tongue position causes more oral impedance and more oral pressure, which increases transpalatal transmission of the sound.

High vowels have more nasal resonance than low vowels.
High tongue position causes more oral impedance and more oral pressure, which increases transpalatal transmission of the sound.

9

Resonance disorder—abnormal _______ of sound energy through the oral, nasal, and/or pharyngeal cavities of the vocal tract during speech production

Types include the following:
__________
__________
__________ resonance
__________ resonance

Resonance disorder—abnormal transmission of sound energy through the oral, nasal, and/or pharyngeal cavities of the vocal tract during speech production

Types include the following:
Hypernasality
Hyponasality
Cul-de-sac resonance
Mixed resonance

10

Hypernasality—abnormal ____ _______ during the production of _____ sounds
Due to abnormal ______ (sharing of acoustic energy) of the oral and nasal cavities during speech
Most perceptible on ______

Hypernasality—abnormal nasal resonance during the production of oral sounds
Due to abnormal coupling (sharing of acoustic energy) of the oral and nasal cavities during speech
Most perceptible on vowels

11

When hyper nasality is severe…
_____ _______ consonants become nasalized (e.g., m/b, n/d).
-_______ production
Other consonants may be substituted by _______ (e.g., n/s).
-_________ production

When severe…
Voiced oral consonants become nasalized (e.g., m/b, n/d).
Obligatory production
Other consonants may be substituted by nasals (e.g., n/s).
Compensatory production

12

Hypernasality Causes include:
A _________ opening
A thin ______ due to a ______ ________
A very large _______ _______
______ articulation on certain ______ sounds (phoneme-specific) due to ________

Causes include:
A velopharyngeal opening
A thin velum due to a submucous cleft
A very large oronasal fistula
Nasal articulation on certain oral sounds (phoneme-specific) due to mislearning

13

Hyponasality—a reduction in ______ _______ _________ during speech, particularly with ________ sounds
Denasality—___ ______ ______ during speech, including with nasal sounds
In both cases, individual sounds “__________”

Hyponasality—a reduction in normal nasal resonance during speech, particularly with nasal sounds
Denasality—no nasal resonance during speech, including with nasal sounds
In both cases, individual sounds “stuffed up”

14

Hyponasality and denasality particularly affect _____ _______ but also affect _______ if severe.
Nasal consonants sound similar to their _____ ________ (e.g., b/m, d/n, g/ŋ).

Hyponasality and denasality particularly affect nasal sounds but also affect vowels if severe.
Nasal consonants sound similar to their oral cognates (e.g., b/m, d/n, g/ŋ).

15

Hyponasality and Denasality Caused by blockage in nasopharynx or nasal cavity due to:
_____ _________: swollen nose from allergies
Common _______
______ ____________
________ tonsils that intrude into the _______

Caused by blockage in nasopharynx or nasal cavity due to:
Allergic rhinitis: swollen nose from allergies
Common cold
Adenoid hypertrophy
Hypertrophic tonsils that intrude into the pharynx

16

Hyponasality and Denasality Causes with history of cleft lip/palate:
_____ _________
_______ stenosis or ______
Stenotic _________
__________ retrusion which restricts pharyngeal and nasal cavity space

Causes with history of cleft lip/palate:
Deviated septum
Choanal stenosis or atresia
Stenotic naris
Maxillary retrusion which restricts pharyngeal and nasal cavity space

17

Cul-de-sac resonance—acoustic energy is _______ from exiting at a cavity’s normal ________
Sound is absorbed by _____ _______
Speech is perceived as ______ and _____ in volume.

Cul-de-sac resonance—acoustic energy is blocked from exiting at a cavity’s normal outlet
Sound is absorbed by soft tissues.
Speech is perceived as muffled and low in volume.

18

Types of cul-de-sac resonance are defined by blockage at the cavity’s _____ point.
Types include:
______ cul-de-sac resonance
______ cul-de-sac resonance
_______cul-de-sac resonance

Types of cul-de-sac resonance are defined by blockage at the cavity’s exit point.
Types include:
Oral cul-de-sac resonance
Nasal cul-de-sac resonance
Pharyngeal cul-de-sac resonance

19

Oral cul-de-sac resonance—sound is partially blocked from exiting the ______ cavity during speech.
Causes include:
________—a small mouth opening
“Mumbling,” speaking without opening the mouth normally

Oral cul-de-sac resonance—sound is partially blocked from exiting the oral cavity during speech.
Causes include:
Microstomia—a small mouth opening
“Mumbling,” speaking without opening the mouth normally

20

Nasal cul-de-sac resonance—sound is partially blocked from exiting the _______ cavity during speech.
It is most noticeable with both ______ (which would otherwise cause hypernasality) and an _____ ______ blockage.
Nasal cul-de-sac resonance is common with _____ _____/_____ when there is both VPI and blockage due to _____ stenosis.

Nasal cul-de-sac resonance—sound is partially blocked from exiting the nasal cavity during speech.
It is most noticeable with both VPI (which would otherwise cause hypernasality) and an anterior nasal blockage.
Nasal cul-de-sac resonance is common with cleft lip/palate when there is both VPI and blockage due to nares stenosis.

21

Pharyngeal cul-de-sac resonance—sound remains in the _______ during speech
Causes include:
Large ______ that block exit of the oropharynx and entrance to oral cavity
Obstruction on the ______ wall of the hypopharynx or oropharynx

Pharyngeal cul-de-sac resonance—sound remains in the oropharynx during speech
Causes include:
Large tonsils that block exit of the oropharynx and entrance to oral cavity
Obstruction on the pharyngeal wall of the hypopharynx or oropharynx

22

Mixed resonance—any combination of _______ (with or without nasal emission), _______, and _______ resonance
Although hypernasality and hyponasality cannot occur simultaneously, they can both occur on different ______ in the same speaker.
Causes
______ and obstruction
_______: timing the VP closure

Mixed resonance—any combination of hypernasality (with or without nasal emission), hyponasality, and cul-de-sac resonance
Although hypernasality and hyponasality cannot occur simultaneously, they can both occur on different sound in the same speaker.
Causes
VPI and obstruction
Apraxia: timing the VP closure

23

Adenoidectomy:
Can improve ___________
Can exacerbate or cause _________ ________ with hypernasality (and nasal air emission)

Adenoidectomy:
Can improve hyponasality
Can exacerbate or cause velopharyngeal insufficiency with hypernasality (and nasal air emission)

24

Tonsillectomy:
Can eliminate _________ cul-de-sac resonance

Tonsillectomy:
Can eliminate pharyngeal cul-de-sac resonance

25

Treatment
_______
______ device
_______ ______
-ONLY when abnormal resonance is _____ ______ due to faulty articulation

Surgery
Prosthetic device
Speech therapy
ONLY when abnormal resonance is phoneme-specific due to faulty articulation

26

Nasal Emission

_____ ______—when there is an attempt to build up _____ air pressure for consonants while there is a _____ in the system (_____ valve or _____ fistula)
Four basic types of nasal emission:
_____ nasal emission
_____ nasal emission
_____ _____ (turbulence)
_____ -_____ _____ _____ (_____ )

Nasal emission—when there is an attempt to build up intraoral air pressure for consonants while there is a leak in the system (velopharyngeal valve or oronasal fistula)
Four basic types of nasal emission:
Inaudible nasal emission
Audible nasal emission
Nasal rustle (turbulence)
Phoneme-specific nasal emission (PSNE)

27

Nasal Emission CONT.

_____ _____ _____ —occurs with a relatively _____ opening
There is very little impedance to the flow and therefore, little _____ or _____ .
_____ masks the sound of nasal emission.

Inaudible nasal emission—occurs with a relatively large opening
There is very little impedance to the flow and therefore, little friction or pressure.
Hypernasality masks the sound of nasal emission.

28

Nasal Emission CONT.

_____ _____ _____ —occurs with a relatively large opening

Can cause _____ characteristics including:
- _____ or _____ consonants
- _____ _____ _____
- A _____ _____
- _____ _____ _____
- _____

Inaudible nasal emission—occurs with a relatively large opening

Can cause secondary characteristics including:
- Weak or omitted consonants
- Short utterance length
- A nasal grimace
- Compensatory articulation productions
- Dysphonia

29

Nasal Air Emission

_____ _____ _____ —occurs when there is a _____ -sized _____ opening
- There is _____ resistance to the flow, making the nasal emission more _____ .
- There is _____ pronounced _____ to mask the nasal emission.
- There still may be some of the other secondary characteristics due to a leak of airflow.

Audible nasal emission—occurs when there is a medium-sized velopharyngeal opening
- There is greater resistance to the flow, making the nasal emission more audible.
- There is less pronounced hypernasality to mask the nasal emission.
- There still may be some of the other secondary characteristics due to a leak of airflow.

30

Nasal Air Emission CONT.

_____ _____ (also called _____ _____ )—occurs when there is a _____ velopharyngeal opening
- There is great _____ to the flow, making the nasal emission more _____ .
- Air flow through a _____ opening results in _____ air pressure than flow through a _____ opening.
- Air is released into nasal cavity with pressure, causing very audible _____ of nasal _____ .
- Nasal rustle is usually _____ , but _____ with _____ in utterance _____ , _____ , _____ complexity, and even _____ .

Nasal rustle (also called nasal turbulence)—occurs when there is a small velopharyngeal opening
- There is great resistance to the flow, making the nasal emission more audible.
- Air flow through a small opening results in higher air pressure than flow through a large opening.
- Air is released into nasal cavity with pressure, causing very audible bubbling of nasal secretions.
- Nasal rustle is usually inconsistent, but increases with increase in utterance length, speed, phonemic complexity, and even fatigue.